# Matt's arXiv selection: week ending 25 July 2008

From: Matthew Davis <mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au>
Date: Wed, 06 Aug 2008 11:47:50 +1000

The following message was sent to the matts_arxiv list by Matthew Davis <mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au>

Hi everyone,

I've been sitting here waiting for a plane for the last hour and a half, and
I've managed to collate the next installment. There were 35 new preprints and
17 replacements this week.

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arXiv:0807.2882
Date: Thu, 17 Jul 2008 21:34:35 GMT (470kb)

Title: Nonlinear response of the vacuum Rabi resonance
Authors: Lev S. Bishop, J. M. Chow, Jens Koch, A. A. Houck, M. H. Devoret, E.
Thuneberg, S. M. Girvin, R. J. Schoelkopf
Categories: cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.supr-con
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures. Supplementary Material and Supplementary Movies
are available at http://www.eng.yale.edu/rslab/publications.html
\\
On the level of single atoms and photons, the coupling between atoms and the
electromagnetic field is typically very weak. By employing a cavity to confine
the field, the strength of this interaction can be increased many orders of
magnitude to a point where it dominates over any dissipative process. This
strong-coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics has been reached for
real atoms in optical cavities, and for artificial atoms in circuit QED and
quantum-dot systems. A signature of strong coupling is the splitting of the
cavity transmission peak into a pair of resolvable peaks when a single resonant
atom is placed inside the cavity - an effect known as vacuum Rabi splitting.
The circuit QED architecture is ideally suited for going beyond this linear
response effect. Here, we show that increasing the drive power results in two
unique nonlinear features in the transmitted heterodyne signal: the
supersplitting of each vacuum Rabi peak into a doublet, and the appearance of
additional peaks with the characteristic sqrt(n) spacing of the Jaynes-Cummings
ladder. These constitute direct evidence for the coupling between the quantized
microwave field and the anharmonic spectrum of a superconducting qubit acting
as an artificial atom.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2882 , 470kb)
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arXiv:0807.2898
Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 03:57:23 GMT (162kb)

Title: Heavily Damped Motion of One-Dimensional Bose Gases in an Optical
Lattice
Authors: Ippei Danshita, Charles W. Clark
Categories: cond-mat.other
\\
We study the dynamics of strongly correlated one-dimensional Bose gases in a
combined harmonic and optical lattice potential subjected to sudden
displacement of the confining potential. Using the time-evolving block
decimation method, we perform a first-principles quantum many-body simulation
of the experiment of Fertig {\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 94}, 120403
(2005)] - the first, to our knowledge, to incorporate all details of the
experimental parameters. We find good quantitative agreement with this
experiment: the damping of the dipole oscillations is significant even for
shallow lattices, and the motion becomes overdamped with increasing lattice
depth as observed. We show that the transition to overdamping is attributed to
the decay of superfluid flow accelerated by quantum fluctuations, which occurs
well before the emergence of Mott insulator domains.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2898 , 162kb)
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arXiv:0807.2923
Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 10:00:11 GMT (176kb)

Title: Gapless superfluidity in the attractive Hubbard model with population
imbalance
Authors: Tung-Lam Dao, Michel Ferrero, Antoine Georges, Massimo Capone, Olivier
Parcollet
Categories: cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.str-el
\\
We study a two-component Fermi system with attractive interactions and
different populations of the two species in a three-dimensional cubic lattice.
For an intermediate coupling in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime, we
find a uniformly polarized gapless superfluid (breached-pair phase) which is
stable down to very low temperatures. The condensation energy of this phase
corresponds to a stabilization by potential energy, as in a BCS superfluid, in
contrast to the unpolarized BEC which is stabilized by kinetic energy. We
present general arguments suggesting that preformed pairs in the unpolarized
superfluid favor the stabilization of a breached-pair phase.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2923 , 176kb)
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arXiv:0807.2954
Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 12:14:49 GMT (2755kb)

Title: Long-range correlations of density in a Bose-Einstein condensate
expanding in a random potential
Authors: N. Cherroret, S. E. Skipetrov
Categories: cond-mat.dis-nn cond-mat.mes-hall
\\
We study correlations of atomic density in a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein
condensate, expanding diffusively in a random potential. We show that these
correlations are long-range and that they are strongly enhanced at long times.
Density at distant points exhibits negative correlations.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2954 , 2755kb)
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arXiv:0807.2979
Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 14:31:04 GMT (59kb)

Title: The two-body problem of ultra-cold atoms in a harmonic trap
Authors: Patrick Shea, Brandon P. van Zyl, Rajat K. Bhaduri
Categories: physics.atom-ph cond-mat.other
\\
In this pedagogical article, we consider two bosonic atoms interacting with a
short range potential, and trapped in a spherically symmetric harmonic
oscillator. The problem is exactly solvable, and is relevant in the research of
ultra-cold atoms. We show that the energy spectrum is universal, irrespective
of the shape of the interaction potential, provided its range is much smaller
than the oscillator length.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2979 , 59kb)
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arXiv:0807.2965
Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 17:48:22 GMT (330kb)

Title: Sum-frequency generation of 589 nm light with near-unit efficiency
Authors: Emmanuel Mimoun, Luigi De Sarlo, Jean-Jacques Zondy, Jean Dalibard,
and Fabrice Gerbier
Categories: physics.optics
\\
We report on a laser source at 589 nm based on sum-frequency generation of
two infrared laser at 1064 nm and 1319 nm. Output power as high as 800 mW are
achieved starting from 370 mW at 1319 nm and 770 mW at 1064 nm, corresponding
to converting roughly 90% of the 1319 nm photons entering the cavity.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2965 , 330kb)
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arXiv:0807.3067
Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2008 16:00:27 GMT (520kb,D)

Title: Ultracold atom spin field effect transistors
Authors: J. Y. Vaishnav, Julius Ruseckas, Charles W. Clark, Gediminas
Juzeliunas
Categories: cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.other
\\
We propose a method of constructing cold atom analogs of the spintronic
device known as the Datta-Das transistor (DDT), which despite its seminal
conceptual role in spintronics, has never been successfully realized with
electrons. We propose two alternative schemes for an atomic DDT, both of which
are based on the experimental setup for tripod stimulated Raman adiabatic
passage. Both setups involve atomic beams incident on a series of laser fields
mimicking the relativistic spin orbit coupling for electrons that is the
operating mechanism of the DDT.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3067 , 520kb)
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arXiv:0807.3129
Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2008 01:38:36 GMT (922kb)

Title: Bose-Einstein condensates of polar molecules: anisotropic interactions =
anisotropic mass
Authors: Andrei Derevianko
Categories: cond-mat.other
\\
So far the theory of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of polar molecules was
based on an ad hoc generalization of equations for spherical atoms. Here I
adopt a rigorous pseudo-potential approach to low-energy dipolar interactions
and derive a non-linear mean-field Schrodinger equation for a
harmonically-trapped condensate. I show that, effectively, the dipolar
interactions alter molecular mass. The resulting effective mass is anisotropic:
to the leading order the mass is altered only for the motion along the
polarizing field. For a typical BEC of spin-polarized magnetically-interacting
alkali-metal atoms the effective atomic mass is reduced by 10% from its bare
value. For a BEC of polar molecules the mass may be reduced by a factor of a
1,000.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3129 , 922kb)
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arXiv:0807.3173
Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2008 18:57:05 GMT (42kb)

Title: Mesoscopic Aspects of Strongly Interacting Cold Atoms
Authors: S.D. Huber, G. Blatter
Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.supr-con
\\
Harmonically trapped lattice bosons with strong repulsive interactions
exhibit a superfluid-Mott insulator heterostructure in the form of a ''wedding
cake''. We discuss the mesoscopic nature of such a system within a
one-dimensional model and calculate the scattering properties of
quasi-particles at a superfluid--Mott-insulator interface as an elementary
building block to describe transport phenomena across such a boundary.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3173 , 42kb)
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arXiv:0807.3306
Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 19:21:19 GMT (141kb)

Title: Observation of an Efimov-like resonance in ultracold atom-dimer
scattering
Authors: S. Knoop, F. Ferlaino, M. Mark, M. Berninger, H. Schoebel, H.-C.
Naegerl, R. Grimm
Categories: cond-mat.other
\\
The field of few-body physics has originally been motivated by understanding
nuclear matter. New model systems to experimentally explore few-body quantum
systems can now be realized in ultracold gases with tunable interactions.
Albeit the vastly different energy regimes of ultracold and nuclear matter (peV
as compared to MeV), few-body phenomena are universal for near-resonant
two-body interactions. Efimov states represent a paradigm for universal
three-body states, and evidence for their existence has been obtained in
measurements of three-body recombination in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms.
Interacting samples of halo dimers can provide further information on universal
few-body phenomena. Here we study interactions in an optically trapped mixture
of such halo dimers with atoms, realized in a caesium gas at nanokelvin
temperatures. We observe an atom-dimer scattering resonance, which we interpret
as being due to a trimer state hitting the atom-dimer threshold. We discuss the
close relation of this observation to Efimov's scenario, and in particular to
atom-dimer Efimov resonances.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3306 , 141kb)
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arXiv:0807.3323
Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 18:55:37 GMT (832kb)

Title: Spontaneous vortices in the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates
Authors: C. N. Weiler, T. W. Neely, D. R. Scherer, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis,
B. P. Anderson
Categories: cond-mat.other
Comments: 14 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in Nature.
Supplementary movie files are available at
http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/spontaneous_vortices
\\
Phase transitions are ubiquitous in nature, ranging from protein folding and
denaturisation, to the superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition, to
the decoupling of forces in the early universe. Remarkably, phase transitions
can be arranged into universality classes, where systems having unrelated
microscopic physics exhibit identical scaling behaviour near the critical
point. Here we present an experimental and theoretical study of the
Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition of an atomic gas, focusing on one
prominent universal element of phase transition dynamics: the spontaneous
formation of topological defects during a quench through the transition. While
the microscopic dynamics of defect formation in phase transitions are generally
difficult to investigate, particularly for superfluid phase transitions,
Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) offer unique experimental and theoretical
opportunities for probing such details. Although spontaneously formed vortices
in the condensation transition have been previously predicted to occur, our
results encompass the first experimental observations and statistical
characterisation of spontaneous vortex formation in the condensation
transition. Using microscopic theories that incorporate atomic interactions and
quantum and thermal fluctuations of a finite-temperature Bose gas, we simulate
condensation and observe vortex formation in close quantitative agreement with
our experimental results. Our studies provide further understanding of the
development of coherence in superfluids, and may allow for direct investigation
of universal phase-transition dynamics.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3323 , 832kb)
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arXiv:0807.3110
Date: Sat, 19 Jul 2008 17:20:01 GMT (1598kb)

Title: Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman
sub-levels
Authors: M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, A. Ron
Categories: quant-ph
\\
Two-photon processes that involve different sub-levels of the ground state of
an atom, are highly sensitive to depopulation and decoherence within the ground
state. For example, the spectral width of electromagnetically induced
transparency resonances in $\Lambda-$type system, are strongly affected by the
ground state depopulation and decoherence rates. We present a direct
measurement of decay rates between hyperfine and Zeeman sub-levels in the
ground state of $^{87}$Rb vapor. Similar to the relaxation-in-the-dark
technique, pumping lasers are used to pre-align the atomic vapor in a well
defined quantum state. The free propagation of the atomic state is monitored
using a Ramsey-like method. Coherence times in the range 1-10 ms were measured
for room temperature atomic vapor. In the range of the experimental parameters
used in this study, the dominant process inducing Zeeman decoherence is the
spin-exchange collisions between rubidium atoms.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3110 , 1598kb)
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arXiv:0807.3272
Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 14:17:59 GMT (295kb)

Title: Formation of ultracold polar molecules in the rovibrational ground state
Authors: J. Deiglmayr, A. Grochola, M. Repp, K. M\"ortlbauer, C. Gl\"uck, J.
Lange, O. Dulieu, R. Wester, and M. Weidem\"uller
Categories: quant-ph
\\
Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute ground state X$^1\Sigma^+$, v"=0,
J"=0 are formed via a single photo-association step starting from laser-cooled
atoms. The selective production of v"=0, J"=2 molecules with a 50-fold higher
rate is also demonstrated. The rotational and vibrational state of the ground
state molecules is determined in a setup combining depletion spectroscopy with
resonant-enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. Using
the determined production rate of up to 5x10^3 molecules/s, we describe a
simple scheme which can provide large samples of externally and internally cold
dipolar molecules.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3272 , 295kb)
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arXiv:0807.3301
Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 16:31:19 GMT (125kb)

Title: Calculations of static dipole polarizabilities of alkali dimers.
Prospects for alignment of ultracold molecules
Authors: Johannes Deiglmayr, Mireille Aymar, Roland Wester, Matthias
Weidem\"uller, Olivier Dulieu
Categories: physics.atom-ph
Comments: Accepted for publication in J Chem Phys
\\
The rapid development of experimental techniques to produce ultracold alkali
molecules opens the ways to manipulate them and to control their dynamics using
external electric fields. A prerequisite quantity for such studies is the
knowledge of their static dipole polarizabilities. In this paper, we computed
the variations with internuclear distance and with vibrational index of the
static dipole polarizability components of all homonuclear alkali dimers
including Fr$_2$, and of all heteronuclear alkali dimers involving Li to Cs, in
their electronic ground state and in their lowest triplet state. We use the
same quantum chemistry approach than in our work on dipole moments (M. Aymar
and O. Dulieu, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 204302 (2005)), based on pseudopotentials
for atomic core representation, Gaussian basis sets, and effective potentials
for core polarization. Polarizabilities are extracted from electronic energies
using the finite-field method. For the heaviest species Rb$_2$, Cs$_2$ and
Fr$_2$ and for all heteronuclear alkali dimers, such results are presented for
the first time. The accuracy of our results on atomic and molecular static
dipole polarizabilities is discussed by comparing our values with the few
available experimental data and elaborate calculations. We found that for all
alkali pairs, the parallel and perpendicular components of the ground state
polarizabilities at the equilibrium distance $R_e$ scale as $(R_e)^3$, which
can be related to a simple electrostatic model of an ellipsoidal charge
distribution. Prospects for possible alignment and orientation effects with
these molecules in forthcoming experiments are discussed.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3301 , 125kb)
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arXiv:0807.3249
Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 12:41:59 GMT (141kb,D)

Title: The Emperor's Last Clothes?
Authors: A.N. Schellekens
Categories: physics.pop-ph
Comments: 87 pages, Review intended for readers with an education in physics
\\
We are in the middle of a remarkable paradigm shift in particle physics, a
shift of opinion that occurred so slowly that some even try to deny that they
changed their minds at all. It concerns a very basic question: can we expect to
derive the laws of particle physics from a fundamental theory? The Standard
Model of particle physics as well as the 1984 string theory revolution provided
be traced back to an old fallacy: a misguided idea about our own importance.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3249 , 141kb)
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arXiv:0807.3366
Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 22:05:02 GMT (30kb)

Title: Motion of an impurity particle in an ultracold quasi-one-dimensional gas
of hard-core bosons
Authors: M.D. Girardeau and A. Minguzzi
Categories: cond-mat.other
Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures, revtex4. Submitted to PRL
\\
The low-lying eigenstates of a one-dimensional (1D) system of many
impenetrable point bosons and one moving impurity particle with repulsive
zero-range impurity-boson interaction are found exactly for all values of the
impurity-boson mass ratio and coupling constant. The moving entity is a
polaron-like composite object consisting of the impurity clothed by a co-moving
gray soliton. The special case with impurity-boson interaction of point
hard-core form and impurity-boson mass ratio $m_i/m$ unity is first solved
exactly as a special case of a previous Fermi-Bose (FB) mapping treatment of
soluble 1D Bose-Fermi mixture problems. Then a more general treatment is given
using second quantization for the bosons and the second-quantized form of the
FB mapping, eliminating the impurity degrees of freedom by a Lee-Low-Pines
canonical transformation. This yields the exact solution for arbitrary $m_i/m$
and impurity-boson interaction strength. A stability breakdown occurs when the
impurity velocity reaches the speed of sound, associated with acoustical
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3366 , 30kb)
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arXiv:0807.3432
Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 09:33:54 GMT (190kb)

Title: Dynamics of kicked matter-wave solitons in an optical lattice
Authors: A. Cetoli, L. Salasnich, B.A. Malomed, F. Toigo
Categories: cond-mat.other
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures, to be published in Physica D: Nonlinear
Phenomena; special issue on "Nonlinear Phenomena in Degenerate Quantum Gases"
\\
We investigate effects of the application of a kick to one-dimensional
matter-wave solitons in a self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a
optical lattice. The resulting soliton's dynamics is studied within the
framework of the time-dependent nonpolynomial Schrodinger equation. The
crossover from the pinning to quasi-free motion crucially depends on the size
of the kick, strength of the self-attraction, and parameters of the optical
lattice.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3432 , 190kb)
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arXiv:0807.3435
Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 09:48:41 GMT (140kb)

Title: Pair correlations of scattered atoms from two colliding Bose-Einstein
Condensates: Perturbative Approach
Authors: J. Chwedenczuk, P. Zin, M. Trippenbach, A. Perrin, V. Leung, D. Boiron
and C. I. Westbrook
Categories: cond-mat.other
\\
We apply an analytical model for anisotropic, colliding Bose-Einstein
condensates in a spontaneous four wave mixing geometry to evaluate the second
order correlation function of the field of scattered atoms. Our approach uses
quantized scattering modes and the equivalent of a classical, undepleted pump
approximation. Results to lowest order in perturbation theory are compared with
a recent experiment and with other theoretical approaches.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3435 , 140kb)
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arXiv:0807.3444
Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 10:24:20 GMT (26kb)

Title: A Fortran 90 program to solve the Hartree-Fock equations for interacting
spin-1/2 Fermions confined in Harmonic potentials
Authors: H. K. Pal and A. Shukla
Categories: cond-mat.other
Comments: 19 pages and 2 figures
Journal-ref: Comp. Phys. Communications 179, 267 (2008)
\\
A set of weakly interacting spin-1/2 Fermions, confined by a harmonic
oscillator potential, and interacting with each other via a contact potential,
is a model system which closely represents the physics of a dilute gas of
two-component Fermionic atoms confined in a magneto-optic trap. In the present
work, our aim is to present a Fortran 90 computer program which, using a basis
set expansion technique, solves the Hartree-Fock (HF) equations for spin-1/2$Fermions confined by a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential, and interacting with each other via pair-wise delta-function potentials. Additionally, the program can also account for those anharmonic potentials which can be expressed as a polynomial in the position operators$x,y$, and$z$. Both the restricted-HF (RHF), and the unrestricted-HF (UHF) equations can be solved for a given number of Fermions, with either repulsive or attractive interactions among them. The option of UHF solutions for such systems also allows us to study possible magnetic properties of the physics of two-component confined atomic Fermi gases, with imbalanced populations. Using our code we also demonstrate that such a system exhibits shell structure, and follows Hund's rule. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3444 , 26kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3495 Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 14:59:34 GMT (300kb) Title: Gap solitons in a model of a superfluid fermion gas in optical lattices Authors: S. K. Adhikari and B. A. Malomed Categories: cond-mat.other \\ We consider a dynamical model for a Fermi gas in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid state, trapped in a combination of a 1D or 2D optical lattice (OL) and a tight parabolic potential acting in the transverse direction(s). The model is based on an equation for the order parameter (wave function), which is derived from the energy density for the weakly coupled BCS superfluid. The equation includes a nonlinear self-repulsive term of power 7/3, which accounts for the Fermi pressure. Reducing the equation to the 1D or 2D form, we construct families of stable 1D and 2D gap solitons (GSs) by means of numerical simulations, which are guided by the variational approximation (VA). The GSs are, chiefly, compact objects trapped in a single cell of the OL potential. In the linear limit, the VA predicts almost exact positions of narrow Bloch bands that separate the semi-infinite and first finite gaps, as well as the first and second finite ones. Families of stable even and odd bound states of 1D GSs are constructed too. We also demonstrate that the GS can be dragged without much distortion by an OL moving at a moderate velocity ($\sim $1 mm/s, in physical units). The predicted GSs contain$\sim 10^{3}-10^{4}$and$\sim 10^{3}$atoms per 1D and 2D settings, respectively. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3495 , 300kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3516 Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:51:59 GMT (144kb) Title: Phase Transition in Space: How Far Does a Symmetry Bend Before It Breaks? Authors: Wojciech H. Zurek and Uwe Dorner Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures. Published online 5 June 2008 Journal-ref: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 2953 (2008) DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0069 \\ We extend the theory of symmetry breaking dynamics in non-equilibrium second order phase transitions known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) to transitions where the change of phase occurs not in time, but in space. This can be due to a time-independent spatial variation of a field that imposes a phase with one symmetry to the left of where it attains critical value, while allowing spontaneous symmetry breaking to the right of that critical borderline. Topological defects need not form in such a situation. We show, however, that the size, in space, of the scar'' over which the order parameter adjusts as it bends'' interpolating between the phases with different symmetry follows from a KZM - like approach. As we illustrate on the example of a transverse quantum Ising model, in quantum phase transitions this spatial scale -- the size of the scar -- is directly reflected in the energy spectrum of the system: In particular, it determines the size of the energy gap. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3516 , 144kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3358 Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 21:14:52 GMT (2267kb,D) Title: Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles Authors: K. Hammerer, A.S. Sorensen, E.S. Polzik Categories: quant-ph Comments: 52 pages, 22 figures, to appear in Reviews of Modern Physics \\ During the past decade the interaction of light with multi-atom ensembles has attracted a lot of attention as a basic building block for quantum information processing and quantum state engineering. The field started with the realization that optically thick free space ensembles can be efficiently interfaced with quantum optical fields. By now the atomic ensemble - light interfaces have become a powerful alternative to the cavity-enhanced interaction of light with single atoms. We discuss various mechanisms used for the quantum interface, including quantum nondemolition or Faraday interaction, quantum measurement and feedback, Raman interaction and electromagnetically induced transparency. The paper provides a common theoretical frame for these processes, describes basic experimental techniques and media used for quantum interfaces, and reviews several key experiments on quantum memory for light, quantum entanglement between atomic ensembles and light, and quantum teleportation with atomic ensembles. We concentrate on deterministic operations but also briefly discuss probabilistic protocols. The paper concludes with an outlook on the future of atomic ensembles as an enabling technology in quantum information processing. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3358 , 2267kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3484 Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 13:57:16 GMT (729kb) Title: Bose-Einstein condensation of stationary-light polaritons Authors: Michael Fleischhauer, Johannes Otterbach, Razmik G. Unanyan Categories: quant-ph cond-mat.other Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures \\ We propose and analyze a mechanism for Bose-Einstein condensation of stationary dark-state polaritons. Dark-state polaritons (DSPs) are formed in the interaction of light with laser-driven 3-level Lambda-type atoms and are the basis of phenomena such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), ultra-slow and stored light. They have long intrinsic lifetimes and in a stationary set-up with two counterpropagating control fields of equal intensity have a 3D quadratic dispersion profile with variable effective mass. Since DSPs are bosons they can undergo a Bose-Einstein condensation at a critical temperature which can be many orders of magnitude larger than that of atoms. We show that thermalization of polaritons can occur via elastic collisions mediated by a resonantly enhanced optical Kerr nonlinearity on a time scale short compared to the decay time. Finally condensation can be observed by turning stationary into propagating polaritons and monitoring the emitted light. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3484 , 729kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3511 Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:04:30 GMT (1661kb) Title: Controlling Irreversibility and Directional Flow of Light with Atomic Motion Authors: C. H. Raymond Ooi Categories: quant-ph Comments: 5 pages, 5 figures \\ The Doppler effect of moving atoms can create irreversibility of light. We show that the laser field in electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) scheme with atomic motion can control the directional propagation of two counter-propagating probe fields in atomic gas cell. The quantum coherence effect serves as an optical transistor. Interference of the two output fields from the cell shows useful feature for determining the mean atomic velocity and can be useful as quantum velocimeter. We also find that the sign of the dispersive phase in EIT has a unique property, which helps to explain certain features in the interference. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3511 , 1661kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3408) Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 07:32:35 GMT (312kb) Title: Doppler-free spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 optical clock transition in laser-cooled fermionic isotopes of neutral mercury Authors: M. Petersen (SYRTE), R. Chicireanu (SYRTE), S.T. Dawkins (SYRTE), D.V. Magalh\~aes (SYRTE, Ifsc-Usp), C. Mandache (SYRTE, Inflpr), Y. Lecoq (SYRTE), A. Clairon (SYRTE), S. Bize (SYRTE) Categories: physics.atom-ph quant-ph \\ We have performed for the first time direct laser spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 optical clock transition at 265.6 nm in fermionic isotopes of neutral mercury laser-cooled in a magneto-optical trap. Spectroscopy is performed by measuring the depletion of the magneto-optical trap induced by the excitation of the long-lived 3P0 state by a probe at 265.6 nm. Measurements resolve the Doppler-free recoil doublet allowing for a determination of the transition frequency to an uncer- tainty well below the Doppler-broadened linewidth. We have performed absolute measurement of the frequency with respect to an ultra-stable reference monitored by LNE-SYRTE fountain pri- mary frequency standards using a femtosecond laser frequency comb. The measured frequency is 1128575290808 +/- 5.6 kHz in 199Hg and 1128569561140 +/- 5.3 kHz in 201Hg, more than 4 orders of magnitude better than previous indirect determinations. Owing to a low sensitivity to blackbody radiation, mercury is a promising candidate for reaching the ultimate performance of optical lattice clocks. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3408 , 312kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3609 Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 06:35:36 GMT (2787kb) Title: Vortices in rotating optical lattices: commensurability, hysteresis, and proximity to the Mott State Authors: Daniel S. Goldbaum and Erich J. Mueller Categories: cond-mat.other Comments: 21 Pages, 6 Figures ; Higher resolution versions of Figs. 1,4,5 are available upon request \\ Quantized vortices stunningly illustrate the coherent nature of a superfluid Bose condensate of alkali atoms. Introducing an optical lattice depletes this coherence. Consequently, novel vortex physics may emerge in an experiment on a harmonically trapped gas in the presence of a rotating optical lattice. The most dramatic effects would occur in proximity to the Mott state, an interaction dominated insulator with a fixed integer number of particles per site. We model such a rotating gas, showing that the lattice-induced spatial profile of the superfluid density drives a gross rearrangement of vortices. For example, instead of the uniform vortex lattices commonly seen in experiments, we find parameters for which the vortices all sit at a fixed distance from the center of the trap, forming a ring. Similarly, they can coalesce at the center, forming a giant vortex. We find that the properties of this system are hysteretic, even far from the Mott state. We explain this hysteresis in terms of vortex pinning, commensurability between vortex density and pinning site density, and energy barriers against changing the number of vortices. Finally, we model time-of-flight expansion, demonstrating the experimental observability of our predictions. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3609 , 2787kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3627 Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 09:51:29 GMT (10kb) Title: Tunneling-induced damping of phase coherence revivals in deep optical lattices Authors: Uwe R. Fischer and Ralf Sch\"utzhold Categories: cond-mat.other Comments: 3.5 pages of RevTex4 \\ We consider phase coherence collapse and revival in deep optical lattices, and calculate within the Bose-Hubbard model the revival amplitude damping incurred by a finite tunneling coupling of the lattice wells (after sweeping from the superfluid to the Mott phase). Deriving scaling laws for the corresponding decay of first-order coherence revival in terms of filling factor, final lattice depth, and number of tunneling coupling partners, we estimate whether revival-damping related to tunneling between sites can be or even has already been observed in experiment. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3627 , 10kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3633 Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 10:14:16 GMT (484kb) Title: Vortex Lattice in a Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensate Authors: Eniko J. M. Madarassy Categories: cond-mat.other Comments: 7 pages, 16 figures \\ Numerical simulations of vortex motion in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate were performed by solving the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of a simple phenomenological model of interaction between the condensate and the finite temperature thermal cloud. The log (base e) of total energy, trap energy, quantum energy, kinetic energy, internal energy and z-component of the angular momentum vs time were compared with f(x)=a+bx for that time when the vortices come in in the condensate. The increasing/decay rate of these energies and L_{z} were studied as a function of dissipation. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3633 , 484kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3636 Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 11:10:02 GMT (524kb) Title: Normal-Superfluid Interface for Polarized Fermion Gases Authors: Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Achilleas Lazarides Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.supr-con Comments: 11 pages, 5 figures \\ Recent experiments on imbalanced fermion gases have proved the existence of a sharp interface between a superfluid and a normal phase. We show that, at the lowest experimental temperatures, a temperature difference between N and SF phase can appear as a consequence of the blocking of energy transfer across the interface. Such blocking is a consequence of the existence of a SF gap, which causes low-energy normal particles to be reflected from the N-SF interface. Our quantitative analysis is based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism, which allows us to give analytical expressions for the thermodynamic properties and characterize the possible interface scattering regimes, including the case of unequal masses. Our central result is that the thermal conductivity is exponentially small at the lowest experimental temperatures. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3636 , 524kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3683 Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 14:18:14 GMT (114kb) Title: Phonon instability in two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates Authors: R. Nath, P. Pedri and L. Santos Categories: cond-mat.other Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures \\ The partially attractive character of the dipole-dipole interaction leads to phonon instability in dipolar condensates, which is followed by collapse in three-dimensional geometries. We show that the nature of this instability is fundamentally different in two-dimensional condensates, due to the dipole-induced stabilization of two-dimensional bright solitons. As a consequence, a transient gas of attractive solitons is formed, and collapse may be avoided. In the presence of an harmonic confinement, the instability leads to transient pattern formation followed by the creation of stable two-dimensional solitons. This dynamics should be observable in on-going experiments, allowing for the creation of stable two-dimensional solitons for the first time ever in quantum gases. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3683 , 114kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3698 Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 15:30:23 GMT (88kb) Title: Quantum Diffusion of Matter Waves in 2D Speckle Potentials Authors: C. Miniatura, R.C. Kuhn, D. Delande, C.A. Mueller Categories: cond-mat.dis-nn cond-mat.other Comments: 12 pages \\ This paper investigates quantum diffusion of matter waves in two-dimensional random potentials, focussing on expanding Bose-Einstein condensates in spatially correlated optical speckle potentials. Special care is taken to describe the effect of dephasing, finite system size, and an initial momentum distribution. We derive general expressions for the interference-renormalized diffusion constant, the disorder-averaged probability density distribution, the variance of the expanding atomic cloud, and the localized fraction of atoms. These quantities are studied in detail for the special case of an inverted-parabola momentum distribution as obtained from an expanding condensate in the Thomas-Fermi regime. Lastly, we derive quantitative criteria for the unambiguous observation of localization effects in a possible 2D experiment. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3698 , 88kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3672 Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 13:59:16 GMT (501kb) Title: Light-shift tomography in an optical-dipole trap for neutral atoms Authors: Jean-Philippe Brantut (LCFIO), Jean-Fran\c{c}ois Cl\'ement (LCFIO), Martin Robert De Saint Vincent (LCFIO), Gael Varoquaux (LCFIO), Robert A. Nyman (LCFIO), Alain Aspect (LCFIO), Thomas Bourdel (LCFIO), Philippe Bouyer (LCFIO) Categories: physics.atom-ph \\ We report on light-shift tomography of a cloud of 87 Rb atoms in a far-detuned optical-dipole trap at 1565 nm. Our method is based on standard absorption imaging, but takes advantage of the strong light-shift of the excited state of the imaging transition, which is due to a quasi-resonance of the trapping laser with a higher excited level. We use this method to (i) map the equipotentials of a crossed optical-dipole trap, and (ii) study the thermalisation of an atomic cloud by following the evolution of the potential-energy of atoms during the free-evaporation process. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3672 , 501kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3853 Date: Thu, 24 Jul 2008 16:16:17 GMT (439kb) Title: Storage and resonance retrieval of optical superposition states in an atomic medium Authors: Leon Karpa, Frank Vewinger and Martin Weitz Categories: quant-ph Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures \\ We investigate the storage of light in atomic rubidium vapor using a multilevel-tripod scheme. In the system, two collective dark polariton modes exist, forming an effective spinor quasiparticle. Storage of light is performed by dynamically reducing the optical group velocity to zero. After releasing the stored pulse, a beating of the two reaccelerated optical modes is monitored. The observed beating signal oscillates at an atomic transition frequency, opening the way to novel quantum limited measurements of atomic resonance frequencies and quantum switches. \\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3853 , 439kb) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ \\ arXiv:0807.3894 Date: Thu, 24 Jul 2008 14:42:02 GMT (473kb) Title: Direct observation of atom anti-bunching in an optical lattice by nearest-neighbor detection Authors: M. Karski, L. F\"orster, J. M. Choi, W. Alt, A. Widera, D. Meschede Categories: quant-ph physics.atom-ph Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures \\ We overcome the diffraction limit in fluorescence imaging of neutral atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. At a periodicity of$433 \text{nm}\$ we
reliably infer the separation of two atoms down to nearest neighbors. We
observe interaction induced on-site anti-bunching, while for atoms in separate
lattice sites no atom losses due to light induced interactions occur. Our
method points towards characterization of correlated quantum states in optical
lattice systems.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3894 , 473kb)
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\\
arXiv:0807.3938
Date: Thu, 24 Jul 2008 18:17:15 GMT (447kb)

Title: Quantum and classical correlations in waveguide lattices
Authors: Y. Bromberg, Y. Lahini, R. Morandotti and Y. Silberberg
Categories: quant-ph
\\
Lattices of evanescently coupled waveguides have been shown to be extremely
versatile in manipulating the flow of light. These systems enabled direct
observation of optical analogues of fundamental quantum mechanical effects such
as Bloch oscillations, Zenner tunnelling, Anderson localization, the quantum
Zeno effect and many others. These effects however, are not strictly quantum
mechanical, but are rather related to the wave properties of light. To observe
and utilize the quantum properties of light, one should consider correlations
between single photons. In this Letter we investigate photon correlations in
waveguide lattices using two-photon input states. We show that photons
propagating in waveguide lattices develop nontrivial correlations, exhibiting
many non-classical features unique to these systems. Some of these features can
be obtained, albeit with reduced contrast, using classical intensity
correlations measurements, similar to the well known Hanbury Brown and Twiss
correlations. We study experimentally such intensity correlations in a periodic
array. Our results suggest that waveguide lattices can be used as a robust and
highly controllable tool for creating and manipulating quantum states, and
offer new ways of studying the quantum properties of light.
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3938 , 447kb)
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The replacements:

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\\
arXiv:0706.2887
replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 17:41:44 GMT (48kb)

Title: Casimir effect in a one-dimensional gas of free fermions
Authors: Eugene B. Kolomeisky, Joseph P. Straley, and Michael Timmins
Categories: cond-mat.mes-hall hep-th quant-ph
Comments: 13 pages, 5 figures. A generalization to the case of an arbitrary
harmonic liquid is given and discussion is improved. Version to be published
in Phys. Rev. A
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.2887 , 48kb)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------\\
\\
arXiv:0801.4454
replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 09:19:51 GMT (148kb)

Title: Ground-state reference systems for expanding correlated fermions in one
dimension
Authors: F. Heidrich-Meisner, M. Rigol, A. Muramatsu, A.E. Feiguin, E. Dagotto
Categories: cond-mat.str-el
as published
Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 013620 (2008)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.013620
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.4454 , 148kb)
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\\
arXiv:0804.1035
replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 13:24:10 GMT (26kb)

Title: Vortex core states in superfluid Fermi-Fermi mixtures with unequal
masses
Authors: M. Iskin
Categories: cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.other
Comments: 4 pages with 3 figures, to appear in PRA
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.1035 , 26kb)
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\\
arXiv:0806.1627
replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 10:03:23 GMT (96kb)

Title: Atom-atom correlations and relative number squeezing in dissociation of
spatially inhomogeneous molecular condensates
Authors: Magnus Ogren and K. V. Kheruntsyan
Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.other quant-ph
Comments: Minor corrections, final published version
Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 011602(R) (2008)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.011602
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.1627 , 96kb)
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\\
arXiv:0711.3960
replaced with revised version Mon, 21 Jul 2008 07:35:30 GMT (472kb)

Title: The iTEBD algorithm beyond unitary evolution
Authors: Roman Orus, Guifre Vidal
Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech
Comments: 11 pages, 16 figures, 1 appendix with algorithms for specific types
of evolution. Updated version
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.3960 , 472kb)
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\\
arXiv:0803.1643
replaced with revised version Mon, 21 Jul 2008 14:17:57 GMT (815kb,D)

Title: Quantum Many-Body Dynamics of Coupled Double-Well Superlattices
Authors: Peter Barmettler, Ana Maria Rey, Eugene Demler, Mikhail D. Lukin,
Categories: quant-ph cond-mat.other cond-mat.str-el
Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 012330 (2008)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.012330
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.1643 , 815kb)
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\\
arXiv:0803.3664
replaced with revised version Sun, 20 Jul 2008 00:20:52 GMT (539kb,D)

Title: Numerical method for evolving the Projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Authors: P. B. Blakie
Categories: physics.comp-ph cond-mat.soft physics.atom-ph
Comments: 12 pages, 5 figures. To appear in Phys. Rev. E. Convergence results
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.3664 , 539kb)
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arXiv:0806.3948
replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 22:34:48 GMT (57kb)

Title: How the effective boson-boson interaction works in Bose-Fermi mixtures
in periodic geometries
Authors: Giovanni Mazzarella
Categories: cond-mat.other
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.3948 , 57kb)
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\\
arXiv:0807.0938
replaced with revised version Sun, 20 Jul 2008 10:25:58 GMT (5kb)

Title: Dilute Hard "Sphere" Bose Gas in Dimensions 2, 4 and 5
Authors: C.N. Yang
Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.supr-con
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.0938 , 5kb)
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\\
arXiv:0712.0431
replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:14:05 GMT (309kb)

Title: Spontaneous rotation in one-dimensional systems of cold atoms
Authors: Akiyuki Tokuno, Masahiro Sato
Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.str-el
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures, final version
Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 013623 (2008)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.013623
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0712.0431 , 309kb)
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\\
arXiv:0803.4078
replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:36:06 GMT (784kb)

Title: Collisions between tunable halo dimers: exploring an elementary
four-body process with identical bosons
Authors: F. Ferlaino, S. Knoop, M. Mark, M. Berninger, H. Sch\"obel, H.-C.
N\"agerl, and R. Grimm
Categories: cond-mat.other
Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 023201 (2008)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.023201
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.4078 , 784kb)
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\\
arXiv:0807.2979
replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 17:08:24 GMT (58kb)

Title: The two-body problem of ultra-cold atoms in a harmonic trap
Authors: Patrick Shea, Brandon P. van Zyl, Rajat K. Bhaduri
Categories: physics.atom-ph cond-mat.other
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2979 , 58kb)
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\\
arXiv:0710.1090
replaced with revised version Wed, 23 Jul 2008 04:44:16 GMT (1100kb)

Title: Vortex lattices of bosons in deep rotating optical lattices
Authors: Daniel S. Goldbaum, Erich J. Mueller
Categories: cond-mat.other
Comments: 15 Pages, 5 Figures; Title slightly modified; References updated;
Organized into sections; Typos corrected; Some discussion added
Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 77, 033629 (2008)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.033629
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.1090 , 1100kb)
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\\
arXiv:0805.1641
replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 23:15:40 GMT (632kb)

Title: Breathing mode frequencies of a rotating Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC
crossover region
Authors: Theja N. De Silva
Categories: cond-mat.other
Comments: 6 pages, 8 fiqures. Formalism is modified to include the effect of
negative quartic potential
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1641 , 632kb)
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\\
arXiv:0807.1450
replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 23:08:31 GMT (343kb)

Title: Fermionic superfluid properties in a one-dimensional optical lattice
Authors: Theja N. De Silva
Categories: cond-mat.other
Comments: 6 pages, 5 figures, calculations are modified with different
tunneling energies
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.1450 , 343kb)
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\\
arXiv:0802.3774
replaced with revised version Thu, 24 Jul 2008 13:21:17 GMT (919kb)

Title: The quasi-periodic Bose-Hubbard model and localization in
one-dimensional cold atomic gases
Authors: G. Roux, T. Barthel, I. P. McCulloch, C. Kollath, U. Schollwoeck, T.
Giamarchi
Categories: cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.dis-nn
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0802.3774 , 919kb)
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\\
arXiv:0804.3257
replaced with revised version Thu, 24 Jul 2008 10:55:25 GMT (66kb)

Title: Spatial entanglement of paired photons generated in cold atomic
ensembles
Authors: Clara I. Osorio, Sergio Barreiro, Morgan W. Mitchell and Juan P.
Torres
Categories: quant-ph
Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev. A.; one figure (Fig. 3)
was added, typos and labels in figure 2 were corrected
\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.3257 , 66kb)
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Till next time,
Matt.

--
=========================================================================
Dr M. J. Davis,               Senior Lecturer in Physics
School of Physical Sciences,  email: mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au
University of Queensland,     ph   : +61 7 334 69824
Brisbane, QLD 4072,           fax  : +61 7 336 51242
Australia.                    http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/
=========================================================================
Matt's arXiv selection: weekly summary of cold-atom papers from arXiv.org
http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/matts_arXiv/
=========================================================================
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Received on Thu Aug 07 2008 - 11:07:53 EST

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