From: Matthew Davis <mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au>

Date: Wed, 06 Aug 2008 11:47:50 +1000

Date: Wed, 06 Aug 2008 11:47:50 +1000

The following message was sent to the matts_arxiv list by Matthew Davis <mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au>

Hi everyone,

I've been sitting here waiting for a plane for the last hour and a half, and

I've managed to collate the next installment. There were 35 new preprints and

17 replacements this week.

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arXiv:0807.2882

Date: Thu, 17 Jul 2008 21:34:35 GMT (470kb)

Title: Nonlinear response of the vacuum Rabi resonance

Authors: Lev S. Bishop, J. M. Chow, Jens Koch, A. A. Houck, M. H. Devoret, E.

Thuneberg, S. M. Girvin, R. J. Schoelkopf

Categories: cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.supr-con

Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures. Supplementary Material and Supplementary Movies

are available at http://www.eng.yale.edu/rslab/publications.html

\\

On the level of single atoms and photons, the coupling between atoms and the

electromagnetic field is typically very weak. By employing a cavity to confine

the field, the strength of this interaction can be increased many orders of

magnitude to a point where it dominates over any dissipative process. This

strong-coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics has been reached for

real atoms in optical cavities, and for artificial atoms in circuit QED and

quantum-dot systems. A signature of strong coupling is the splitting of the

cavity transmission peak into a pair of resolvable peaks when a single resonant

atom is placed inside the cavity - an effect known as vacuum Rabi splitting.

The circuit QED architecture is ideally suited for going beyond this linear

response effect. Here, we show that increasing the drive power results in two

unique nonlinear features in the transmitted heterodyne signal: the

supersplitting of each vacuum Rabi peak into a doublet, and the appearance of

additional peaks with the characteristic sqrt(n) spacing of the Jaynes-Cummings

ladder. These constitute direct evidence for the coupling between the quantized

microwave field and the anharmonic spectrum of a superconducting qubit acting

as an artificial atom.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2882 , 470kb)

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arXiv:0807.2898

Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 03:57:23 GMT (162kb)

Title: Heavily Damped Motion of One-Dimensional Bose Gases in an Optical

Lattice

Authors: Ippei Danshita, Charles W. Clark

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pages, 5 figures

\\

We study the dynamics of strongly correlated one-dimensional Bose gases in a

combined harmonic and optical lattice potential subjected to sudden

displacement of the confining potential. Using the time-evolving block

decimation method, we perform a first-principles quantum many-body simulation

of the experiment of Fertig {\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 94}, 120403

(2005)] - the first, to our knowledge, to incorporate all details of the

experimental parameters. We find good quantitative agreement with this

experiment: the damping of the dipole oscillations is significant even for

shallow lattices, and the motion becomes overdamped with increasing lattice

depth as observed. We show that the transition to overdamping is attributed to

the decay of superfluid flow accelerated by quantum fluctuations, which occurs

well before the emergence of Mott insulator domains.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2898 , 162kb)

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arXiv:0807.2923

Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 10:00:11 GMT (176kb)

Title: Gapless superfluidity in the attractive Hubbard model with population

imbalance

Authors: Tung-Lam Dao, Michel Ferrero, Antoine Georges, Massimo Capone, Olivier

Parcollet

Categories: cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.str-el

Comments: 4+ pages, 4 figures

\\

We study a two-component Fermi system with attractive interactions and

different populations of the two species in a three-dimensional cubic lattice.

For an intermediate coupling in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime, we

find a uniformly polarized gapless superfluid (breached-pair phase) which is

stable down to very low temperatures. The condensation energy of this phase

corresponds to a stabilization by potential energy, as in a BCS superfluid, in

contrast to the unpolarized BEC which is stabilized by kinetic energy. We

present general arguments suggesting that preformed pairs in the unpolarized

superfluid favor the stabilization of a breached-pair phase.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2923 , 176kb)

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arXiv:0807.2954

Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 12:14:49 GMT (2755kb)

Title: Long-range correlations of density in a Bose-Einstein condensate

expanding in a random potential

Authors: N. Cherroret, S. E. Skipetrov

Categories: cond-mat.dis-nn cond-mat.mes-hall

Comments: 4 pages, 5 figures

\\

We study correlations of atomic density in a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein

condensate, expanding diffusively in a random potential. We show that these

correlations are long-range and that they are strongly enhanced at long times.

Density at distant points exhibits negative correlations.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2954 , 2755kb)

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arXiv:0807.2979

Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 14:31:04 GMT (59kb)

Title: The two-body problem of ultra-cold atoms in a harmonic trap

Authors: Patrick Shea, Brandon P. van Zyl, Rajat K. Bhaduri

Categories: physics.atom-ph cond-mat.other

\\

In this pedagogical article, we consider two bosonic atoms interacting with a

short range potential, and trapped in a spherically symmetric harmonic

oscillator. The problem is exactly solvable, and is relevant in the research of

ultra-cold atoms. We show that the energy spectrum is universal, irrespective

of the shape of the interaction potential, provided its range is much smaller

than the oscillator length.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2979 , 59kb)

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arXiv:0807.2965

Date: Fri, 18 Jul 2008 17:48:22 GMT (330kb)

Title: Sum-frequency generation of 589 nm light with near-unit efficiency

Authors: Emmanuel Mimoun, Luigi De Sarlo, Jean-Jacques Zondy, Jean Dalibard,

and Fabrice Gerbier

Categories: physics.optics

\\

We report on a laser source at 589 nm based on sum-frequency generation of

two infrared laser at 1064 nm and 1319 nm. Output power as high as 800 mW are

achieved starting from 370 mW at 1319 nm and 770 mW at 1064 nm, corresponding

to converting roughly 90% of the 1319 nm photons entering the cavity.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2965 , 330kb)

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arXiv:0807.3067

Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2008 16:00:27 GMT (520kb,D)

Title: Ultracold atom spin field effect transistors

Authors: J. Y. Vaishnav, Julius Ruseckas, Charles W. Clark, Gediminas

Juzeliunas

Categories: cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.other

\\

We propose a method of constructing cold atom analogs of the spintronic

device known as the Datta-Das transistor (DDT), which despite its seminal

conceptual role in spintronics, has never been successfully realized with

electrons. We propose two alternative schemes for an atomic DDT, both of which

are based on the experimental setup for tripod stimulated Raman adiabatic

passage. Both setups involve atomic beams incident on a series of laser fields

mimicking the relativistic spin orbit coupling for electrons that is the

operating mechanism of the DDT.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3067 , 520kb)

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arXiv:0807.3129

Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2008 01:38:36 GMT (922kb)

Title: Bose-Einstein condensates of polar molecules: anisotropic interactions =

anisotropic mass

Authors: Andrei Derevianko

Categories: cond-mat.other

\\

So far the theory of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of polar molecules was

based on an ad hoc generalization of equations for spherical atoms. Here I

adopt a rigorous pseudo-potential approach to low-energy dipolar interactions

and derive a non-linear mean-field Schrodinger equation for a

harmonically-trapped condensate. I show that, effectively, the dipolar

interactions alter molecular mass. The resulting effective mass is anisotropic:

to the leading order the mass is altered only for the motion along the

polarizing field. For a typical BEC of spin-polarized magnetically-interacting

alkali-metal atoms the effective atomic mass is reduced by 10% from its bare

value. For a BEC of polar molecules the mass may be reduced by a factor of a

1,000.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3129 , 922kb)

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arXiv:0807.3173

Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2008 18:57:05 GMT (42kb)

Title: Mesoscopic Aspects of Strongly Interacting Cold Atoms

Authors: S.D. Huber, G. Blatter

Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.supr-con

Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure

\\

Harmonically trapped lattice bosons with strong repulsive interactions

exhibit a superfluid-Mott insulator heterostructure in the form of a ''wedding

cake''. We discuss the mesoscopic nature of such a system within a

one-dimensional model and calculate the scattering properties of

quasi-particles at a superfluid--Mott-insulator interface as an elementary

building block to describe transport phenomena across such a boundary.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3173 , 42kb)

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arXiv:0807.3306

Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 19:21:19 GMT (141kb)

Title: Observation of an Efimov-like resonance in ultracold atom-dimer

scattering

Authors: S. Knoop, F. Ferlaino, M. Mark, M. Berninger, H. Schoebel, H.-C.

Naegerl, R. Grimm

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 12 pages, 3 figures

\\

The field of few-body physics has originally been motivated by understanding

nuclear matter. New model systems to experimentally explore few-body quantum

systems can now be realized in ultracold gases with tunable interactions.

Albeit the vastly different energy regimes of ultracold and nuclear matter (peV

as compared to MeV), few-body phenomena are universal for near-resonant

two-body interactions. Efimov states represent a paradigm for universal

three-body states, and evidence for their existence has been obtained in

measurements of three-body recombination in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms.

Interacting samples of halo dimers can provide further information on universal

few-body phenomena. Here we study interactions in an optically trapped mixture

of such halo dimers with atoms, realized in a caesium gas at nanokelvin

temperatures. We observe an atom-dimer scattering resonance, which we interpret

as being due to a trimer state hitting the atom-dimer threshold. We discuss the

close relation of this observation to Efimov's scenario, and in particular to

atom-dimer Efimov resonances.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3306 , 141kb)

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arXiv:0807.3323

Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 18:55:37 GMT (832kb)

Title: Spontaneous vortices in the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates

Authors: C. N. Weiler, T. W. Neely, D. R. Scherer, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis,

B. P. Anderson

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 14 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in Nature.

Supplementary movie files are available at

http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/spontaneous_vortices

\\

Phase transitions are ubiquitous in nature, ranging from protein folding and

denaturisation, to the superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition, to

the decoupling of forces in the early universe. Remarkably, phase transitions

can be arranged into universality classes, where systems having unrelated

microscopic physics exhibit identical scaling behaviour near the critical

point. Here we present an experimental and theoretical study of the

Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition of an atomic gas, focusing on one

prominent universal element of phase transition dynamics: the spontaneous

formation of topological defects during a quench through the transition. While

the microscopic dynamics of defect formation in phase transitions are generally

difficult to investigate, particularly for superfluid phase transitions,

Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) offer unique experimental and theoretical

opportunities for probing such details. Although spontaneously formed vortices

in the condensation transition have been previously predicted to occur, our

results encompass the first experimental observations and statistical

characterisation of spontaneous vortex formation in the condensation

transition. Using microscopic theories that incorporate atomic interactions and

quantum and thermal fluctuations of a finite-temperature Bose gas, we simulate

condensation and observe vortex formation in close quantitative agreement with

our experimental results. Our studies provide further understanding of the

development of coherence in superfluids, and may allow for direct investigation

of universal phase-transition dynamics.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3323 , 832kb)

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arXiv:0807.3110

Date: Sat, 19 Jul 2008 17:20:01 GMT (1598kb)

Title: Ramsey-like measurement of the decoherence rate between Zeeman

sub-levels

Authors: M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, Y. Sagi, A. Ben-kish, N. Davidson, A. Ron

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 7 pages, 7 figures

\\

Two-photon processes that involve different sub-levels of the ground state of

an atom, are highly sensitive to depopulation and decoherence within the ground

state. For example, the spectral width of electromagnetically induced

transparency resonances in $\Lambda-$type system, are strongly affected by the

ground state depopulation and decoherence rates. We present a direct

measurement of decay rates between hyperfine and Zeeman sub-levels in the

ground state of $^{87}$Rb vapor. Similar to the relaxation-in-the-dark

technique, pumping lasers are used to pre-align the atomic vapor in a well

defined quantum state. The free propagation of the atomic state is monitored

using a Ramsey-like method. Coherence times in the range 1-10 ms were measured

for room temperature atomic vapor. In the range of the experimental parameters

used in this study, the dominant process inducing Zeeman decoherence is the

spin-exchange collisions between rubidium atoms.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3110 , 1598kb)

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arXiv:0807.3272

Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 14:17:59 GMT (295kb)

Title: Formation of ultracold polar molecules in the rovibrational ground state

Authors: J. Deiglmayr, A. Grochola, M. Repp, K. M\"ortlbauer, C. Gl\"uck, J.

Lange, O. Dulieu, R. Wester, and M. Weidem\"uller

Categories: quant-ph

\\

Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute ground state X$^1\Sigma^+$, v"=0,

J"=0 are formed via a single photo-association step starting from laser-cooled

atoms. The selective production of v"=0, J"=2 molecules with a 50-fold higher

rate is also demonstrated. The rotational and vibrational state of the ground

state molecules is determined in a setup combining depletion spectroscopy with

resonant-enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. Using

the determined production rate of up to 5x10^3 molecules/s, we describe a

simple scheme which can provide large samples of externally and internally cold

dipolar molecules.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3272 , 295kb)

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arXiv:0807.3301

Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 16:31:19 GMT (125kb)

Title: Calculations of static dipole polarizabilities of alkali dimers.

Prospects for alignment of ultracold molecules

Authors: Johannes Deiglmayr, Mireille Aymar, Roland Wester, Matthias

Weidem\"uller, Olivier Dulieu

Categories: physics.atom-ph

Comments: Accepted for publication in J Chem Phys

\\

The rapid development of experimental techniques to produce ultracold alkali

molecules opens the ways to manipulate them and to control their dynamics using

external electric fields. A prerequisite quantity for such studies is the

knowledge of their static dipole polarizabilities. In this paper, we computed

the variations with internuclear distance and with vibrational index of the

static dipole polarizability components of all homonuclear alkali dimers

including Fr$_2$, and of all heteronuclear alkali dimers involving Li to Cs, in

their electronic ground state and in their lowest triplet state. We use the

same quantum chemistry approach than in our work on dipole moments (M. Aymar

and O. Dulieu, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 204302 (2005)), based on pseudopotentials

for atomic core representation, Gaussian basis sets, and effective potentials

for core polarization. Polarizabilities are extracted from electronic energies

using the finite-field method. For the heaviest species Rb$_2$, Cs$_2$ and

Fr$_2$ and for all heteronuclear alkali dimers, such results are presented for

the first time. The accuracy of our results on atomic and molecular static

dipole polarizabilities is discussed by comparing our values with the few

available experimental data and elaborate calculations. We found that for all

alkali pairs, the parallel and perpendicular components of the ground state

polarizabilities at the equilibrium distance $R_e$ scale as $(R_e)^3$, which

can be related to a simple electrostatic model of an ellipsoidal charge

distribution. Prospects for possible alignment and orientation effects with

these molecules in forthcoming experiments are discussed.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3301 , 125kb)

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arXiv:0807.3249

Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 12:41:59 GMT (141kb,D)

Title: The Emperor's Last Clothes?

Authors: A.N. Schellekens

Categories: physics.pop-ph

Comments: 87 pages, Review intended for readers with an education in physics

\\

We are in the middle of a remarkable paradigm shift in particle physics, a

shift of opinion that occurred so slowly that some even try to deny that they

changed their minds at all. It concerns a very basic question: can we expect to

derive the laws of particle physics from a fundamental theory? The Standard

Model of particle physics as well as the 1984 string theory revolution provided

ample food for thought about this. The reason this was ignored for so long can

be traced back to an old fallacy: a misguided idea about our own importance.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3249 , 141kb)

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arXiv:0807.3366

Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 22:05:02 GMT (30kb)

Title: Motion of an impurity particle in an ultracold quasi-one-dimensional gas

of hard-core bosons

Authors: M.D. Girardeau and A. Minguzzi

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures, revtex4. Submitted to PRL

\\

The low-lying eigenstates of a one-dimensional (1D) system of many

impenetrable point bosons and one moving impurity particle with repulsive

zero-range impurity-boson interaction are found exactly for all values of the

impurity-boson mass ratio and coupling constant. The moving entity is a

polaron-like composite object consisting of the impurity clothed by a co-moving

gray soliton. The special case with impurity-boson interaction of point

hard-core form and impurity-boson mass ratio $m_i/m$ unity is first solved

exactly as a special case of a previous Fermi-Bose (FB) mapping treatment of

soluble 1D Bose-Fermi mixture problems. Then a more general treatment is given

using second quantization for the bosons and the second-quantized form of the

FB mapping, eliminating the impurity degrees of freedom by a Lee-Low-Pines

canonical transformation. This yields the exact solution for arbitrary $m_i/m$

and impurity-boson interaction strength. A stability breakdown occurs when the

impurity velocity reaches the speed of sound, associated with acoustical

Cerenkov radiation (Mach waves).

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3366 , 30kb)

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arXiv:0807.3432

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 09:33:54 GMT (190kb)

Title: Dynamics of kicked matter-wave solitons in an optical lattice

Authors: A. Cetoli, L. Salasnich, B.A. Malomed, F. Toigo

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures, to be published in Physica D: Nonlinear

Phenomena; special issue on "Nonlinear Phenomena in Degenerate Quantum Gases"

\\

We investigate effects of the application of a kick to one-dimensional

matter-wave solitons in a self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a

optical lattice. The resulting soliton's dynamics is studied within the

framework of the time-dependent nonpolynomial Schrodinger equation. The

crossover from the pinning to quasi-free motion crucially depends on the size

of the kick, strength of the self-attraction, and parameters of the optical

lattice.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3432 , 190kb)

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arXiv:0807.3435

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 09:48:41 GMT (140kb)

Title: Pair correlations of scattered atoms from two colliding Bose-Einstein

Condensates: Perturbative Approach

Authors: J. Chwedenczuk, P. Zin, M. Trippenbach, A. Perrin, V. Leung, D. Boiron

and C. I. Westbrook

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures

\\

We apply an analytical model for anisotropic, colliding Bose-Einstein

condensates in a spontaneous four wave mixing geometry to evaluate the second

order correlation function of the field of scattered atoms. Our approach uses

quantized scattering modes and the equivalent of a classical, undepleted pump

approximation. Results to lowest order in perturbation theory are compared with

a recent experiment and with other theoretical approaches.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3435 , 140kb)

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arXiv:0807.3444

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 10:24:20 GMT (26kb)

Title: A Fortran 90 program to solve the Hartree-Fock equations for interacting

spin-1/2 Fermions confined in Harmonic potentials

Authors: H. K. Pal and A. Shukla

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 19 pages and 2 figures

Journal-ref: Comp. Phys. Communications 179, 267 (2008)

\\

A set of weakly interacting spin-1/2 Fermions, confined by a harmonic

oscillator potential, and interacting with each other via a contact potential,

is a model system which closely represents the physics of a dilute gas of

two-component Fermionic atoms confined in a magneto-optic trap. In the present

work, our aim is to present a Fortran 90 computer program which, using a basis

set expansion technique, solves the Hartree-Fock (HF) equations for spin-1/2$

Fermions confined by a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential, and

interacting with each other via pair-wise delta-function potentials.

Additionally, the program can also account for those anharmonic potentials

which can be expressed as a polynomial in the position operators $x,$ $y$, and

$z$. Both the restricted-HF (RHF), and the unrestricted-HF (UHF) equations can

be solved for a given number of Fermions, with either repulsive or attractive

interactions among them. The option of UHF solutions for such systems also

allows us to study possible magnetic properties of the physics of two-component

confined atomic Fermi gases, with imbalanced populations. Using our code we

also demonstrate that such a system exhibits shell structure, and follows

Hund's rule.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3444 , 26kb)

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arXiv:0807.3495

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 14:59:34 GMT (300kb)

Title: Gap solitons in a model of a superfluid fermion gas in optical lattices

Authors: S. K. Adhikari and B. A. Malomed

Categories: cond-mat.other

\\

We consider a dynamical model for a Fermi gas in the

Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid state, trapped in a combination of a

1D or 2D optical lattice (OL) and a tight parabolic potential acting in the

transverse direction(s). The model is based on an equation for the order

parameter (wave function), which is derived from the energy density for the

weakly coupled BCS superfluid. The equation includes a nonlinear self-repulsive

term of power 7/3, which accounts for the Fermi pressure. Reducing the equation

to the 1D or 2D form, we construct families of stable 1D and 2D gap solitons

(GSs) by means of numerical simulations, which are guided by the variational

approximation (VA). The GSs are, chiefly, compact objects trapped in a single

cell of the OL potential. In the linear limit, the VA predicts almost exact

positions of narrow Bloch bands that separate the semi-infinite and first

finite gaps, as well as the first and second finite ones. Families of stable

even and odd bound states of 1D GSs are constructed too. We also demonstrate

that the GS can be dragged without much distortion by an OL moving at a

moderate velocity ($\sim $ 1 mm/s, in physical units). The predicted GSs

contain $\sim 10^{3}-10^{4}$ and $\sim 10^{3}$ atoms per 1D and 2D settings,

respectively.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3495 , 300kb)

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arXiv:0807.3516

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:51:59 GMT (144kb)

Title: Phase Transition in Space: How Far Does a Symmetry Bend Before It

Breaks?

Authors: Wojciech H. Zurek and Uwe Dorner

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures. Published online 5 June 2008

Journal-ref: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 2953 (2008)

DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0069

\\

We extend the theory of symmetry breaking dynamics in non-equilibrium second

order phase transitions known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) to

transitions where the change of phase occurs not in time, but in space. This

can be due to a time-independent spatial variation of a field that imposes a

phase with one symmetry to the left of where it attains critical value, while

allowing spontaneous symmetry breaking to the right of that critical

borderline. Topological defects need not form in such a situation. We show,

however, that the size, in space, of the ``scar'' over which the order

parameter adjusts as it ``bends'' interpolating between the phases with

different symmetry follows from a KZM - like approach. As we illustrate on the

example of a transverse quantum Ising model, in quantum phase transitions this

spatial scale -- the size of the scar -- is directly reflected in the energy

spectrum of the system: In particular, it determines the size of the energy

gap.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3516 , 144kb)

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arXiv:0807.3358

Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2008 21:14:52 GMT (2267kb,D)

Title: Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles

Authors: K. Hammerer, A.S. Sorensen, E.S. Polzik

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 52 pages, 22 figures, to appear in Reviews of Modern Physics

\\

During the past decade the interaction of light with multi-atom ensembles has

attracted a lot of attention as a basic building block for quantum information

processing and quantum state engineering. The field started with the

realization that optically thick free space ensembles can be efficiently

interfaced with quantum optical fields. By now the atomic ensemble - light

interfaces have become a powerful alternative to the cavity-enhanced

interaction of light with single atoms. We discuss various mechanisms used for

the quantum interface, including quantum nondemolition or Faraday interaction,

quantum measurement and feedback, Raman interaction and electromagnetically

induced transparency. The paper provides a common theoretical frame for these

processes, describes basic experimental techniques and media used for quantum

interfaces, and reviews several key experiments on quantum memory for light,

quantum entanglement between atomic ensembles and light, and quantum

teleportation with atomic ensembles. We concentrate on deterministic operations

but also briefly discuss probabilistic protocols. The paper concludes with an

outlook on the future of atomic ensembles as an enabling technology in quantum

information processing.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3358 , 2267kb)

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arXiv:0807.3484

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 13:57:16 GMT (729kb)

Title: Bose-Einstein condensation of stationary-light polaritons

Authors: Michael Fleischhauer, Johannes Otterbach, Razmik G. Unanyan

Categories: quant-ph cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures

\\

We propose and analyze a mechanism for Bose-Einstein condensation of

stationary dark-state polaritons. Dark-state polaritons (DSPs) are formed in

the interaction of light with laser-driven 3-level Lambda-type atoms and are

the basis of phenomena such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT),

ultra-slow and stored light. They have long intrinsic lifetimes and in a

stationary set-up with two counterpropagating control fields of equal intensity

have a 3D quadratic dispersion profile with variable effective mass. Since DSPs

are bosons they can undergo a Bose-Einstein condensation at a critical

temperature which can be many orders of magnitude larger than that of atoms. We

show that thermalization of polaritons can occur via elastic collisions

mediated by a resonantly enhanced optical Kerr nonlinearity on a time scale

short compared to the decay time. Finally condensation can be observed by

turning stationary into propagating polaritons and monitoring the emitted

light.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3484 , 729kb)

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arXiv:0807.3511

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:04:30 GMT (1661kb)

Title: Controlling Irreversibility and Directional Flow of Light with Atomic

Motion

Authors: C. H. Raymond Ooi

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 5 pages, 5 figures

\\

The Doppler effect of moving atoms can create irreversibility of light. We

show that the laser field in electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) scheme

with atomic motion can control the directional propagation of two

counter-propagating probe fields in atomic gas cell. The quantum coherence

effect serves as an optical transistor. Interference of the two output fields

from the cell shows useful feature for determining the mean atomic velocity and

can be useful as quantum velocimeter. We also find that the sign of the

dispersive phase in EIT has a unique property, which helps to explain certain

features in the interference.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3511 , 1661kb)

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arXiv:0807.3408)

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2008 07:32:35 GMT (312kb)

Title: Doppler-free spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 optical clock transition in

laser-cooled fermionic isotopes of neutral mercury

Authors: M. Petersen (SYRTE), R. Chicireanu (SYRTE), S.T. Dawkins (SYRTE), D.V.

Magalh\~aes (SYRTE, Ifsc-Usp), C. Mandache (SYRTE, Inflpr), Y. Lecoq (SYRTE),

A. Clairon (SYRTE), S. Bize (SYRTE)

Categories: physics.atom-ph quant-ph

\\

We have performed for the first time direct laser spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0

optical clock transition at 265.6 nm in fermionic isotopes of neutral mercury

laser-cooled in a magneto-optical trap. Spectroscopy is performed by measuring

the depletion of the magneto-optical trap induced by the excitation of the

long-lived 3P0 state by a probe at 265.6 nm. Measurements resolve the

Doppler-free recoil doublet allowing for a determination of the transition

frequency to an uncer- tainty well below the Doppler-broadened linewidth. We

have performed absolute measurement of the frequency with respect to an

ultra-stable reference monitored by LNE-SYRTE fountain pri- mary frequency

standards using a femtosecond laser frequency comb. The measured frequency is

1128575290808 +/- 5.6 kHz in 199Hg and 1128569561140 +/- 5.3 kHz in 201Hg, more

than 4 orders of magnitude better than previous indirect determinations. Owing

to a low sensitivity to blackbody radiation, mercury is a promising candidate

for reaching the ultimate performance of optical lattice clocks.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3408 , 312kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3609

Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 06:35:36 GMT (2787kb)

Title: Vortices in rotating optical lattices: commensurability, hysteresis, and

proximity to the Mott State

Authors: Daniel S. Goldbaum and Erich J. Mueller

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 21 Pages, 6 Figures ; Higher resolution versions of Figs. 1,4,5 are

available upon request

\\

Quantized vortices stunningly illustrate the coherent nature of a superfluid

Bose condensate of alkali atoms. Introducing an optical lattice depletes this

coherence. Consequently, novel vortex physics may emerge in an experiment on a

harmonically trapped gas in the presence of a rotating optical lattice. The

most dramatic effects would occur in proximity to the Mott state, an

interaction dominated insulator with a fixed integer number of particles per

site. We model such a rotating gas, showing that the lattice-induced spatial

profile of the superfluid density drives a gross rearrangement of vortices. For

example, instead of the uniform vortex lattices commonly seen in experiments,

we find parameters for which the vortices all sit at a fixed distance from the

center of the trap, forming a ring. Similarly, they can coalesce at the center,

forming a giant vortex. We find that the properties of this system are

hysteretic, even far from the Mott state. We explain this hysteresis in terms

of vortex pinning, commensurability between vortex density and pinning site

density, and energy barriers against changing the number of vortices. Finally,

we model time-of-flight expansion, demonstrating the experimental observability

of our predictions.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3609 , 2787kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3627

Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 09:51:29 GMT (10kb)

Title: Tunneling-induced damping of phase coherence revivals in deep optical

lattices

Authors: Uwe R. Fischer and Ralf Sch\"utzhold

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 3.5 pages of RevTex4

\\

We consider phase coherence collapse and revival in deep optical lattices,

and calculate within the Bose-Hubbard model the revival amplitude damping

incurred by a finite tunneling coupling of the lattice wells (after sweeping

from the superfluid to the Mott phase). Deriving scaling laws for the

corresponding decay of first-order coherence revival in terms of filling

factor, final lattice depth, and number of tunneling coupling partners, we

estimate whether revival-damping related to tunneling between sites can be or

even has already been observed in experiment.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3627 , 10kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3633

Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 10:14:16 GMT (484kb)

Title: Vortex Lattice in a Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Eniko J. M. Madarassy

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 7 pages, 16 figures

\\

Numerical simulations of vortex motion in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate

were performed by solving the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the

presence of a simple phenomenological model of interaction between the

condensate and the finite temperature thermal cloud. The log (base e) of total

energy, trap energy, quantum energy, kinetic energy, internal energy and

z-component of the angular momentum vs time were compared with f(x)=a+bx for

that time when the vortices come in in the condensate. The increasing/decay

rate of these energies and L_{z} were studied as a function of dissipation.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3633 , 484kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3636

Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 11:10:02 GMT (524kb)

Title: Normal-Superfluid Interface for Polarized Fermion Gases

Authors: Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Achilleas Lazarides

Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.supr-con

Comments: 11 pages, 5 figures

\\

Recent experiments on imbalanced fermion gases have proved the existence of a

sharp interface between a superfluid and a normal phase. We show that, at the

lowest experimental temperatures, a temperature difference between N and SF

phase can appear as a consequence of the blocking of energy transfer across the

interface. Such blocking is a consequence of the existence of a SF gap, which

causes low-energy normal particles to be reflected from the N-SF interface. Our

quantitative analysis is based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov-de Gennes

formalism, which allows us to give analytical expressions for the thermodynamic

properties and characterize the possible interface scattering regimes,

including the case of unequal masses. Our central result is that the thermal

conductivity is exponentially small at the lowest experimental temperatures.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3636 , 524kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3683

Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 14:18:14 GMT (114kb)

Title: Phonon instability in two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: R. Nath, P. Pedri and L. Santos

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures

\\

The partially attractive character of the dipole-dipole interaction leads to

phonon instability in dipolar condensates, which is followed by collapse in

three-dimensional geometries. We show that the nature of this instability is

fundamentally different in two-dimensional condensates, due to the

dipole-induced stabilization of two-dimensional bright solitons. As a

consequence, a transient gas of attractive solitons is formed, and collapse may

be avoided. In the presence of an harmonic confinement, the instability leads

to transient pattern formation followed by the creation of stable

two-dimensional solitons. This dynamics should be observable in on-going

experiments, allowing for the creation of stable two-dimensional solitons for

the first time ever in quantum gases.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3683 , 114kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3698

Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 15:30:23 GMT (88kb)

Title: Quantum Diffusion of Matter Waves in 2D Speckle Potentials

Authors: C. Miniatura, R.C. Kuhn, D. Delande, C.A. Mueller

Categories: cond-mat.dis-nn cond-mat.other

Comments: 12 pages

\\

This paper investigates quantum diffusion of matter waves in two-dimensional

random potentials, focussing on expanding Bose-Einstein condensates in

spatially correlated optical speckle potentials. Special care is taken to

describe the effect of dephasing, finite system size, and an initial momentum

distribution. We derive general expressions for the interference-renormalized

diffusion constant, the disorder-averaged probability density distribution, the

variance of the expanding atomic cloud, and the localized fraction of atoms.

These quantities are studied in detail for the special case of an

inverted-parabola momentum distribution as obtained from an expanding

condensate in the Thomas-Fermi regime. Lastly, we derive quantitative criteria

for the unambiguous observation of localization effects in a possible 2D

experiment.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3698 , 88kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3672

Date: Wed, 23 Jul 2008 13:59:16 GMT (501kb)

Title: Light-shift tomography in an optical-dipole trap for neutral atoms

Authors: Jean-Philippe Brantut (LCFIO), Jean-Fran\c{c}ois Cl\'ement (LCFIO),

Martin Robert De Saint Vincent (LCFIO), Gael Varoquaux (LCFIO), Robert A.

Nyman (LCFIO), Alain Aspect (LCFIO), Thomas Bourdel (LCFIO), Philippe Bouyer

(LCFIO)

Categories: physics.atom-ph

\\

We report on light-shift tomography of a cloud of 87 Rb atoms in a

far-detuned optical-dipole trap at 1565 nm. Our method is based on standard

absorption imaging, but takes advantage of the strong light-shift of the

excited state of the imaging transition, which is due to a quasi-resonance of

the trapping laser with a higher excited level. We use this method to (i) map

the equipotentials of a crossed optical-dipole trap, and (ii) study the

thermalisation of an atomic cloud by following the evolution of the

potential-energy of atoms during the free-evaporation process.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3672 , 501kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3853

Date: Thu, 24 Jul 2008 16:16:17 GMT (439kb)

Title: Storage and resonance retrieval of optical superposition states in an

atomic medium

Authors: Leon Karpa, Frank Vewinger and Martin Weitz

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures

\\

We investigate the storage of light in atomic rubidium vapor using a

multilevel-tripod scheme. In the system, two collective dark polariton modes

exist, forming an effective spinor quasiparticle. Storage of light is performed

by dynamically reducing the optical group velocity to zero. After releasing the

stored pulse, a beating of the two reaccelerated optical modes is monitored.

The observed beating signal oscillates at an atomic transition frequency,

opening the way to novel quantum limited measurements of atomic resonance

frequencies and quantum switches.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3853 , 439kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3894

Date: Thu, 24 Jul 2008 14:42:02 GMT (473kb)

Title: Direct observation of atom anti-bunching in an optical lattice by

nearest-neighbor detection

Authors: M. Karski, L. F\"orster, J. M. Choi, W. Alt, A. Widera, D. Meschede

Categories: quant-ph physics.atom-ph

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures

\\

We overcome the diffraction limit in fluorescence imaging of neutral atoms in

a one-dimensional optical lattice. At a periodicity of $433 \text{nm}$ we

reliably infer the separation of two atoms down to nearest neighbors. We

observe interaction induced on-site anti-bunching, while for atoms in separate

lattice sites no atom losses due to light induced interactions occur. Our

method points towards characterization of correlated quantum states in optical

lattice systems.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3894 , 473kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3938

Date: Thu, 24 Jul 2008 18:17:15 GMT (447kb)

Title: Quantum and classical correlations in waveguide lattices

Authors: Y. Bromberg, Y. Lahini, R. Morandotti and Y. Silberberg

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: Comments are welcome

\\

Lattices of evanescently coupled waveguides have been shown to be extremely

versatile in manipulating the flow of light. These systems enabled direct

observation of optical analogues of fundamental quantum mechanical effects such

as Bloch oscillations, Zenner tunnelling, Anderson localization, the quantum

Zeno effect and many others. These effects however, are not strictly quantum

mechanical, but are rather related to the wave properties of light. To observe

and utilize the quantum properties of light, one should consider correlations

between single photons. In this Letter we investigate photon correlations in

waveguide lattices using two-photon input states. We show that photons

propagating in waveguide lattices develop nontrivial correlations, exhibiting

many non-classical features unique to these systems. Some of these features can

be obtained, albeit with reduced contrast, using classical intensity

correlations measurements, similar to the well known Hanbury Brown and Twiss

correlations. We study experimentally such intensity correlations in a periodic

array. Our results suggest that waveguide lattices can be used as a robust and

highly controllable tool for creating and manipulating quantum states, and

offer new ways of studying the quantum properties of light.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3938 , 447kb)

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The replacements:

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\\

arXiv:0706.2887

replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 17:41:44 GMT (48kb)

Title: Casimir effect in a one-dimensional gas of free fermions

Authors: Eugene B. Kolomeisky, Joseph P. Straley, and Michael Timmins

Categories: cond-mat.mes-hall hep-th quant-ph

Comments: 13 pages, 5 figures. A generalization to the case of an arbitrary

harmonic liquid is given and discussion is improved. Version to be published

in Phys. Rev. A

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.2887 , 48kb)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------\\

\\

arXiv:0801.4454

replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 09:19:51 GMT (148kb)

Title: Ground-state reference systems for expanding correlated fermions in one

dimension

Authors: F. Heidrich-Meisner, M. Rigol, A. Muramatsu, A.E. Feiguin, E. Dagotto

Categories: cond-mat.str-el

Comments: 8 pages Revtex4, 7 eps-figures, minor changes, additional references,

as published

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 013620 (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.013620

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.4454 , 148kb)

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\\

arXiv:0804.1035

replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 13:24:10 GMT (26kb)

Title: Vortex core states in superfluid Fermi-Fermi mixtures with unequal

masses

Authors: M. Iskin

Categories: cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pages with 3 figures, to appear in PRA

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.1035 , 26kb)

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\\

arXiv:0806.1627

replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 10:03:23 GMT (96kb)

Title: Atom-atom correlations and relative number squeezing in dissociation of

spatially inhomogeneous molecular condensates

Authors: Magnus Ogren and K. V. Kheruntsyan

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.other quant-ph

Comments: Minor corrections, final published version

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 011602(R) (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.011602

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.1627 , 96kb)

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\\

arXiv:0711.3960

replaced with revised version Mon, 21 Jul 2008 07:35:30 GMT (472kb)

Title: The iTEBD algorithm beyond unitary evolution

Authors: Roman Orus, Guifre Vidal

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 11 pages, 16 figures, 1 appendix with algorithms for specific types

of evolution. Updated version

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.3960 , 472kb)

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\\

arXiv:0803.1643

replaced with revised version Mon, 21 Jul 2008 14:17:57 GMT (815kb,D)

Title: Quantum Many-Body Dynamics of Coupled Double-Well Superlattices

Authors: Peter Barmettler, Ana Maria Rey, Eugene Demler, Mikhail D. Lukin,

Immanuel Bloch, Vladimir Gritsev

Categories: quant-ph cond-mat.other cond-mat.str-el

Comments: 13 pages, 10 figures, references added

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 012330 (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.012330

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.1643 , 815kb)

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\\

arXiv:0803.3664

replaced with revised version Sun, 20 Jul 2008 00:20:52 GMT (539kb,D)

Title: Numerical method for evolving the Projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation

Authors: P. B. Blakie

Categories: physics.comp-ph cond-mat.soft physics.atom-ph

Comments: 12 pages, 5 figures. To appear in Phys. Rev. E. Convergence results

added, a few minor changes made and typos fixed

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.3664 , 539kb)

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arXiv:0806.3948

replaced with revised version Fri, 18 Jul 2008 22:34:48 GMT (57kb)

Title: How the effective boson-boson interaction works in Bose-Fermi mixtures

in periodic geometries

Authors: Giovanni Mazzarella

Categories: cond-mat.other

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.3948 , 57kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.0938

replaced with revised version Sun, 20 Jul 2008 10:25:58 GMT (5kb)

Title: Dilute Hard "Sphere" Bose Gas in Dimensions 2, 4 and 5

Authors: C.N. Yang

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.supr-con

Comments: 3 pages

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.0938 , 5kb)

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\\

arXiv:0712.0431

replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:14:05 GMT (309kb)

Title: Spontaneous rotation in one-dimensional systems of cold atoms

Authors: Akiyuki Tokuno, Masahiro Sato

Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.str-el

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures, final version

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 013623 (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.013623

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0712.0431 , 309kb)

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\\

arXiv:0803.4078

replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 16:36:06 GMT (784kb)

Title: Collisions between tunable halo dimers: exploring an elementary

four-body process with identical bosons

Authors: F. Ferlaino, S. Knoop, M. Mark, M. Berninger, H. Sch\"obel, H.-C.

N\"agerl, and R. Grimm

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 023201 (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.023201

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.4078 , 784kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.2979

replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 17:08:24 GMT (58kb)

Title: The two-body problem of ultra-cold atoms in a harmonic trap

Authors: Patrick Shea, Brandon P. van Zyl, Rajat K. Bhaduri

Categories: physics.atom-ph cond-mat.other

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2979 , 58kb)

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\\

arXiv:0710.1090

replaced with revised version Wed, 23 Jul 2008 04:44:16 GMT (1100kb)

Title: Vortex lattices of bosons in deep rotating optical lattices

Authors: Daniel S. Goldbaum, Erich J. Mueller

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 15 Pages, 5 Figures; Title slightly modified; References updated;

Organized into sections; Typos corrected; Some discussion added

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 77, 033629 (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.033629

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.1090 , 1100kb)

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\\

arXiv:0805.1641

replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 23:15:40 GMT (632kb)

Title: Breathing mode frequencies of a rotating Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC

crossover region

Authors: Theja N. De Silva

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 6 pages, 8 fiqures. Formalism is modified to include the effect of

negative quartic potential

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1641 , 632kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.1450

replaced with revised version Tue, 22 Jul 2008 23:08:31 GMT (343kb)

Title: Fermionic superfluid properties in a one-dimensional optical lattice

Authors: Theja N. De Silva

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 6 pages, 5 figures, calculations are modified with different

tunneling energies

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.1450 , 343kb)

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\\

arXiv:0802.3774

replaced with revised version Thu, 24 Jul 2008 13:21:17 GMT (919kb)

Title: The quasi-periodic Bose-Hubbard model and localization in

one-dimensional cold atomic gases

Authors: G. Roux, T. Barthel, I. P. McCulloch, C. Kollath, U. Schollwoeck, T.

Giamarchi

Categories: cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.dis-nn

Comments: 19 pages, 20 figures

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0802.3774 , 919kb)

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\\

arXiv:0804.3257

replaced with revised version Thu, 24 Jul 2008 10:55:25 GMT (66kb)

Title: Spatial entanglement of paired photons generated in cold atomic

ensembles

Authors: Clara I. Osorio, Sergio Barreiro, Morgan W. Mitchell and Juan P.

Torres

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev. A.; one figure (Fig. 3)

was added, typos and labels in figure 2 were corrected

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.3257 , 66kb)

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Till next time,

Matt.

-- ========================================================================= Dr M. J. Davis, Senior Lecturer in Physics School of Physical Sciences, email: mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au University of Queensland, ph : +61 7 334 69824 Brisbane, QLD 4072, fax : +61 7 336 51242 Australia. http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/ ========================================================================= Matt's arXiv selection: weekly summary of cold-atom papers from arXiv.org http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/matts_arXiv/ ========================================================================= Legal stuff: Unless stated otherwise, this e-mail represents only the views of the sender and not the views of the University of Queensland =========================================================================Received on Thu Aug 07 2008 - 11:07:53 EST

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