From: Matthew Davis <mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au>

Date: Thu, 04 Dec 2008 09:50:01 +1000

Date: Thu, 04 Dec 2008 09:50:01 +1000

The following message was sent to the matts_arxiv list by Matthew Davis <mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au>

Dear all,

Things have been a bit busy for me recently - with a very nice workshop on

quantum atom optics in Lorne, Victoria (Australia), and also my wife has had the

flu so I've spent some time at home looking after my kids. I'm off to New

Zealand on the weekend for more conference/collaboration, but I'm hoping I will

be up to date with the arXiv fairly shortly!

It was a busy week - there were 37 new preprints and 19 replacements:

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arXiv:0811.2219

Date: Thu, 13 Nov 2008 21:27:14 GMT (189kb)

Title: Universal state diagrams for harmonically trapped bosons in optical

lattices

Authors: Marcos Rigol, George G. Batrouni, Valery G. Rousseau, Richard T.

Scalettar

Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 10 pages, 10 figures

\\

We use quantum Monte-Carlo simulations to obtain universal zero temperature

state diagrams for strongly correlated lattice bosons in one and two dimensions

under the influence of a harmonic confining potential. Since harmonic traps

generate a coexistence of superfluid and Mott insulating domains, we use local

quantities like the quantum fluctuations of the density and a local

compressibility to identify the phases present in the inhomogeneous density

profiles. We emphasize the use of the 'characteristic density' to produce a

universal state diagram which is relevant to experimental optical lattice

systems, regardless of the number of bosons or trap curvature. We show that the

critical value of U/t at which Mott insulating domains appear in the trap

depends on the filling in the system, and it is in general greater than the

value in the homogeneous system. Recent experimental results by Spielman et al.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 120402 (2008)] are analyzed in the context of our

two-dimensional state diagram, and shown to exhibit a value for the critical

point in good agreement with simulations. We also study the effects of finite,

but low T<t/2, temperatures. We find that in two dimensions they have little

influence on our zero temperature results, while their effect is more

pronounced in one dimension.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2219 , 189kb)

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arXiv:0811.2287

Date: Fri, 14 Nov 2008 13:11:44 GMT (84kb)

Title: Superfluid to Mott-insulator transition of cold atoms in optical

lattices

Authors: N. Dupuis and K. Sengupta

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 6 pages, Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Electronic

Crystals (ECRYS 2008)

\\

We review the superfluid to Mott-insulator transition of cold atoms in

optical lattices. The experimental signatures of the transition are discussed

and the RPA theory of the Bose-Hubbard model briefly described. We point out

that the critical behavior at the transition, as well as the prediction by the

RPA theory of a gapped mode (besides the Bogoliubov sound mode) in the

superfluid phase, are difficult to understand from the Bogoliubov theory. On

the other hand, these findings appear to be intimately connected to the

non-trivial infrared behavior of the superfluid phase as recently studied

within the non-perturbative renormalization group.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2287 , 84kb)

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arXiv:0811.2374

Date: Fri, 14 Nov 2008 16:41:37 GMT (1036kb,D)

Title: Precision molecular spectroscopy for ground state transfer of molecular

quantum gases

Authors: Johann G. Danzl, Manfred J. Mark, Elmar Haller, Mattias Gustavsson,

Nadia Bouloufa, Olivier Dulieu, Helmut Ritsch, Russell Hart, and

Hanns-Christoph Naegerl

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 6 figures, 1 table

\\

One possibility for the creation of ultracold, high-phase-space-density

quantum gases of molecules in the rovibrational ground state relies on first

associating weakly-bound molecules from quantum-degenerate atomic gases on a

Feshbach resonance and then transfering the molecules via several steps of

coherent two-photon stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) into the

rovibronic ground state. Here, in ultracold samples of Cs_2 Feshbach molecules

produced out of ultracold samples of Cs atoms, we observe several optical

transitions to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the excited 0_u^+ molecular

potentials with high resolution. At least one of these transitions, although

rather weak, allows efficient STIRAP transfer into the deeply bound vibrational

level |v=73> of the singlet X ^1Sigma_g^+ ground state potential, as recently

demonstrated. From this level, the rovibrational ground state level |v=0, J=0>

can be reached with one more transfer step. In total, our results show that

coherent ground state transfer for Cs_2 is possible using a maximum of two

successive two-photon processes or one single four-photon STIRAP process.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2374 , 1036kb)

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arXiv:0811.2315

Date: Fri, 14 Nov 2008 11:15:34 GMT (379kb)

Title: Non-Gaussian two-mode squeezing and continuous variable entanglement of

linearly and circularly polarized light beams interacting with cold atoms

Authors: R. J. Missori, M. C. de Oliveira, and K. Furuya

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures

\\

We investigate how entangled coherent states and superpositions of low

intensity coherent states of non-Gaussian nature can be generated via

non-resonant interaction between either two linearly or circularly polarized

field modes and an ensemble of X-like four-level atoms placed in an optical

cavity. We compare our results to recent experimental observations and argue

that the non-Gaussian structure of the field states may be present in those

systems.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2315 , 379kb)

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arXiv:0811.2316

Date: Fri, 14 Nov 2008 11:16:27 GMT (566kb)

Title: Slow-light Faraday effect: an atomic probe with gigahertz bandwidth

Authors: Paul Siddons, Nia C Bell, Yifei Cai, Charles S Adams and Ifan G Hughes

Categories: physics.atom-ph

Comments: 13 pages, 6 figures. Submitted to Nature Photonics

\\

The ability to control the speed and polarisation of light pulses will allow

for faster data flow in optical networks of the future. Optical delay and

switching have been achieved using slow-light techniques in various media,

including atomic vapour. Most of these vapour schemes utilise resonant

narrowband techniques for optical switching, but suffer the drawback of having

a limited frequency range or high loss. In contrast, the Faraday effect in a

Doppler-broadened slow-light medium allows polarisation switching over tens of

GHz with high transmission. This large frequency range opens up the possibility

of switching telecommunication bandwidth pulses and probing of dynamics on a

nanosecond timescale. Here we demonstrate the slow-light Faraday effect for

light detuned far from resonance. We show that the polarisation dependent group

index can split a linearly polarised nanosecond pulse into left and right

circularly polarised components. The group index also enhances the spectral

sensitivity of the polarisation rotation, and large rotations of up to 15 pi

rad are observed for continuous-wave light. Finally, we demonstrate dynamic

broadband pulse switching, by rotating a linearly polarised nanosecond pulse

from vertical to horizontal with no distortion and transmission close to unity.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2316 , 566kb)

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arXiv:0811.2419

Date: Fri, 14 Nov 2008 21:05:54 GMT (9kb)

Title: Large-Distance Asymptotic Behavior of the Correlation Functions of 1D

Impenetrable Anyons at Finite Temperatures

Authors: Ovidiu I. Patu, Vladimir E. Korepin, Dmitri V. Averin

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 5 pages, RevTeX4

\\

The large-distance asymptotic behavior of the field-field correlators has

been computed for one-dimensional impenetrable anyons at finite temperatures.

The asymptotic behavior agrees with the predictions of conformal field theory

at low temperatures and reproduces the known results for impenetrable bosons

and free fermions in appropriate limits. We have also obtained an integrable

system of partial nonlinear differential equations which completely

characterizes the 2-point correlation functions. The system is the same as for

bosons but with different initial conditions.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2419 , 9kb)

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arXiv:0811.2436

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2008 12:40:50 GMT (148kb)

Title: Stationary waves in a supersonic flow of a two-component Bose gas

Authors: L.Yu. Kravchenko, D.V. Fil

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures

\\

A stationary wave pattern occurring in a flow of a two-component

Bose-Einstein condensate past an obstacle is studied. Stationary waves arise at

the velocities of the components at which the Landau criterion is violated. If

the components flow with the same velocity two sets of stationary waves can

arise. If the velocity of one component is equal to zero only one set of waves

is possible. Two sets of waves also arise if the velocities approximately equal

in values and the angle between the velocities is close to $\pi/2$. Under

increase of the relative velocity of the components the spectrum of the

excitations becomes complex valued and the stationary wave pattern is broken.

We obtain a ratio between excess densities of the components for the stationary

waves. This ratio depends on the superfluid velocities of the components, it is

different for different sets of waves, and can vary along crests of waves.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2436 , 148kb)

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arXiv:0811.2635

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2008 08:20:04 GMT (858kb,D)

Title: PGPE theory of finite temperature collective modes for a trapped Bose

gas

Authors: A. Bezett and P. B. Blakie

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 15 pages, 16 figures

\\

We develop formalism based on the projected Gross Pitaevskii equation to

simulate the finite temperature collective mode experiments of Jin et al. [PRL

78, 764 (1997)]. We examine the $m=0$ and $m=2$ quadrupolar modes on the

temperature range $0.51T_c-0.83T_c$ and calculate the frequencies of, and phase

between, the condensate and noncondensate modes, and the condensate mode

damping rate. This study is the first quantitative comparison of the projected

Gross-Pitaevskii equation to experimental results in a dynamical regime.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2635 , 858kb)

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arXiv:0811.2676

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2008 11:21:46 GMT (52kb)

Title: Spin dynamics in a one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model

Authors: M. B. Zvonarev, V. V. Cheianov, T. Giamarchi

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures

\\

We investigate the dynamics of a one-dimensional strongly repulsive

ferromagnetic Bose-Hubbard model close to unit filling. We derive the

propagator of transverse spin waves and the corresponding spectral function. We

demonstrate that arbitrarily small hole doping leads to a strong modification

of the long-time dynamics of the spin propagator as compared with the undoped

case. For the spectral function this is seen in the non-trivial structure of

the magnon peak.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2676 , 52kb)

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arXiv:0811.2758

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2008 17:58:14 GMT (45kb)

Title: Effective Nonlinear Schr\"odinger Equations for Cigar-Shaped and

Disk-Shaped Fermi Superfluids at Unitarity

Authors: S. K. Adhikari and L. Salasnich

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 22 pages, 5 figures

\\

In the case of tight transverse confinement (cigar-shaped trap) the

three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, describing superfluid

Fermi atoms at unitarity (infinite scattering length $|a|\to \infty$), is

reduced to an effective one-dimensional form by averaging over the transverse

coordinates. The resultant effective equation is a 1D nonpolynomial Schrodinger

equation, which produces results in good agreement with the original 3D one. In

the limit of small and large fermion number $N$ the nonlinearity is of simple

power-law type. A similar reduction of the 3D theory to a two-dimensional form

is also performed for a tight axial confinement (disk-shaped trap). The

resultant effective 2D nonpolynomial equation also produces results in

agreement with the original 3D equation and has simple power-law nonlinearity

for small and large $N$. For both cigar- and disk-shaped superfluids our

nonpolynomial Schr\"odinger equations are quite attractive for phenomenological

application.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2758 , 45kb)

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arXiv:0811.2479

Date: Sat, 15 Nov 2008 10:47:18 GMT (483kb)

Title: Negative-index media for matter-wave optics

Authors: J. Baudon, M. Hamamda, J. Grucker, F. Perales, G. Dutier, M. Boustimi

and M. Ducloy

Categories: quant-ph physics.optics

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures, submitted at PRL 4 November 2008

\\

We consider the extension of optical meta-materials to matter waves. We show

that the generic property of pulsed comoving magnetic fields allows us to

fashion the wave-number dependence of the atomic phase shift. It can be used to

produce a transient negative group velocity of an atomic wave packet, which

results into a negative refraction of the matter wave. Application to slow

metastable argon atoms Ar*(3P2) shows that the device is able to operate either

as an efficient beam splitter or an atomic meta-lens. Implications of

"meta-media" in atom optics are considered.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2479 , 483kb)

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arXiv:0811.2705

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2008 13:43:44 GMT (324kb)

Title: Coherent shift of localized bound pair in Bose Hubbard model

Authors: L. Jin, B. Chen, and Z. Song

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures

\\

Based on the exact results obtained by Bethe ansatz, we demonstrate the

existence of stable bound pair (BP) wave packet in Bose Hubbard model with

arbitrary on-site interaction U. In large-U regime, it is found that an

incoming single-particle (SP) can coherently pass through a BP wave packet and

leave a coherent shift in the position of it. This suggests a simple scheme for

constructing a BP charge qubit to realize a quantum switch, which is capable of

controlling the coherent transport of one and only one photon in a

one-dimensional waveguide.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2705 , 324kb)

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arXiv:0811.2771

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2008 18:28:14 GMT (83kb,D)

Title: Momentum exchange between light and a single atom: Abraham or Minkowski?

Authors: E. A. Hinds and Stephen M. Barnett

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure

\\

We consider the forces exerted by a pulse of plane-wave light on a single

atom. The leading edge of the pulse exerts a dispersive force on the atom, and

this modifies the atomic momentum while the atom is enveloped in the light. The

standard view of the optical dipole force indicates that red-detuned light

should attract the atom towards high intensity. This should increase the

average momentum per photon to $\textbf{p}_{0} n$, where $\textbf{p}_{0}$ is

the photon momentum in free space and $n$ is the average refractive index due

to the presence of the atom in the light. We show, however, that this is the

wrong conclusion and that the atom is in fact repelled from the light by the

dispersive forces, giving the photons a momentum $\textbf{p}_{0} /n$. This

leads us to identify Abraham's optical momentum with the kinetic momentum

transfer. The form due to Minkowski is similarly associated with the canonical

momentum. We consider the possibility of demonstrating this in the laboratory,

and we note an unexpected connection with the Aharonov-Casher effect.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2771 , 83kb)

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arXiv:0811.2452

Date: Sat, 15 Nov 2008 01:44:10 GMT (976kb)

Title: A new method for producing ultracold molecular ions

Authors: Eric R. Hudson

Categories: physics.atom-ph physics.chem-ph quant-ph

\\

We propose a new method for the production of ultracold molecular ions. This

method utilizes sympathetic cooling due to the strong collisions between

appropriately chosen molecular ions and laser-cooled neutral atoms to realize

ultracold, internal ground-state molecular ions. In contrast to other

experiments producing cold molecular ions, our proposed method efficiently

cools both the internal and external molecular ion degrees of freedom. The

availability of an ultracold, absolute ground-state sample of molecular ions

would have broad impact to fields as diverse as quantum chemistry,

astrophysics, and fundamental physics; and may lead to the development of a

robust, scalable quantum computer.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2452 , 976kb)

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arXiv:0811.2798

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2008 21:01:17 GMT (613kb)

Title: Probing condensate order in deep optical lattices

Authors: Kuei Sun, Courtney Lannert, Smitha Vishveshwara

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 14 pages, 9 figures, RevTeX

\\

We study interacting bosons in optical lattices in the weak-tunneling regime

where the system in a harmonic trap is inhomogeneous with Mott-insulating and

condensed phases coexisting at zero temperature. We discuss the nature of the

number-fixed condensed ground state in this regime and the validity of the

mean-field treatment thereof. We suggest two experimental signatures of

condensate order in the system. (1) We analyze the hyperfine configuration of

the system, and propose a set of experimental parameters for observing

radio-frequency (RF) spectra which would distinguish the condensed phase from

the Mott insulating phase. We derive the structure of the signal from the

condensate in a typical trapped system, taking into account Goldstone

excitations, and discuss its evolution as a function of temperature. (2) We

study matter-wave interference patterns displayed by the system upon release

from all confining potentials. We show that the density profiles evolve very

differently for the Mott insulating phase and the condensed phase, and can be

distinguished from one another when the two phases co-exist.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2798 , 613kb)

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arXiv:0811.2861

Date: Tue, 18 Nov 2008 08:38:22 GMT (17kb)

Title: Universal Critical Velocity for the Onset of Turbulence of Oscillatory

Superfluid Flow

Authors: R. H\"anninen and W. Schoepe

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 5 pages and 3 figures. Proceedings of the "Low Temperature Quantum

Phenomena and Devices": Symposium in Espoo, Finland, March 28-30, 2008

Journal-ref: J. Low Temp. Phys. 153, 189-196 (2008)

DOI: 10.1007/s10909-008-9834-2

\\

The critical velocity vc for the onset of turbulent drag of small spheres

oscillating in superfluid 4He is frequency dependent (omega/2pi from 100 Hz to

700 Hz) and is described by vc = 2.6sqrt(kappa*omega), where kappa is the

circulation quantum. A qualitative analysis based on a recent theory of the

onset of superfluid turbulence gives vc = sqrt(8*kappa*omega/beta), where beta

is of order 1 and depends on the coefficients of mutual friction. This agrees

well with the data and implies that vc is a universal critical velocity that is

independent of geometry, size, and surface properties of the oscillating body.

This is confirmed by comparing our data on spheres with vc obtained with other

oscillating structures by other groups. Numerical simulations indicate somewhat

larger critical velocity, above which a rapid increase in vortex length is

observed.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2861 , 17kb)

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arXiv:0811.2857

Date: Tue, 18 Nov 2008 08:10:00 GMT (13kb)

Title: Noise induced interference fringes in trapped ultracold bosonic gases

Authors: S. Anderloni, F. Benatti, R. Floreanini, G. G. Guerreschi

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 14 pages, LaTex

\\

We study the dynamics of ultracold atoms trapped in optical double-well

potentials in presence of noise generated by an external environment. When

prepared in a Fock number state, the system shows phase coherence in the

averaged density profile obtained using standard absorption image techniques,

that disappears in absence of noise. This effect indicates that also in

many-body systems an external environment may enhance quantum coherence,

instead of destroying it.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2857 , 13kb)

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arXiv:0811.2950

Date: Tue, 18 Nov 2008 16:43:36 GMT (2911kb,D)

Title: Prospects for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron using

electrically trapped polar molecules

Authors: M. R. Tarbutt, J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, E. A. Hinds

Categories: physics.atom-ph

Comments: 22 pages, 7 figures, prepared for Faraday Discussion 142

\\

Heavy polar molecules can be used to measure the electric dipole moment of

the electron, which is a sensitive probe of physics beyond the Standard Model.

The value is determined by measuring the precession of the molecule's spin in a

plane perpendicular to an applied electric field. The longer this precession

evolves coherently, the higher the precision of the measurement. For molecules

in a trap, this coherence time could be very long indeed. We evaluate the

sensitivity of an experiment where neutral molecules are trapped electrically,

and compare this to an equivalent measurement in a molecular beam. We consider

the use of a Stark decelerator to load the trap from a supersonic source, and

calculate the deceleration efficiency for YbF molecules in both strong-field

seeking and weak-field seeking states. With a 1s holding time in the trap, the

statistical sensitivity could be ten times higher than it is in the beam

experiment, and this could improve by a further factor of five if the trap can

be loaded from a source of larger emittance. We study some effects due to field

inhomogeneity in the trap and find that rotation of the electric field

direction, leading to an inhomogeneous geometric phase shift, is the primary

obstacle to a sensitive trap-based measurement.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2950 , 2911kb)

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arXiv:0811.3010

Date: Tue, 18 Nov 2008 21:54:51 GMT (32kb)

Title: Rotation induced superfluid-normal phase separation in trapped Fermi

gases

Authors: M. Iskin and E. Tiesinga

Categories: cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.other

Comments: 5 pages with 3 figures

\\

We use the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism to analyze the effects of rotation

on the ground state phases of harmonically trapped Fermi gases, under the

assumption that quantized vortices are not excited. We find that the rotation

breaks Cooper pairs that are located near the trap edge, and that this leads to

a phase separation between the nonrotating superfluid (fully paired) atoms

located around the trap center and the rigidly rotating normal (nonpaired)

atoms located towards the trap edge, with a coexistence (partially paired)

region in between. Furthermore, we show that the rotation reveals a topological

quantum phase transition: the superfluid phase that occurs in the coexistence

region is characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum, and that it is

distinct from the gapped phase that occurs near the trap center.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3010 , 32kb)

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arXiv:0811.3054

Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 05:57:06 GMT (466kb)

Title: Spontaneous mass current and textures of p-wave superfluids of trapped

Fermionic atom gases at rest and under rotation

Authors: Y. Tsutsumi, K. Machida

Categories: cond-mat.supr-con

Comments: 5 pages, 5 figures

\\

It is found theoretically based on the Ginzburg-Landau framework that p-wave

superfluids of neutral atom gases in three dimension harmonic traps exhibit

spontaneous mass current at rest, whose direction depends on trap geometry.

Under rotation various types of the order parameter textures are stabilized,

including Mermin-Ho and Anderson-Toulouse-Chechetkin vortices. In a cigar shape

trap spontaneous current flows longitudial to the rotation axis and thus

perpendicular to the ordinary rotational current. These features, spontaneous

mass current at rest and texture formation, can be used as diagnoses for p-wave

superfluidity.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3054 , 466kb)

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arXiv:0811.3079

Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 10:37:46 GMT (24kb)

Title: Out-of-equilibrium bosons on a one-dimensional optical random lattice

Authors: Thierry Platini (LPM), Rosemary J. Harris, Dragi Karevski (LPM)

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

\\

We study the transport properties of a one-dimensional hard-core boson

lattice gas coupled to two particle reservoirs at different chemical potentials

generating a current flow through the system. In particular, the influence of

random fluctuations of the underlying lattice on the stationary state

properties is investigated. We show analytically that the steady-state density

presents a linear profile. The local steady-state current obeys the Fourier law

$j=-\kappa(\tau)\nabla \rho $ where $\tau$ is a typical timescale of the

lattice fluctuations and $\nabla \rho$ the density gradient imposed %on the

system by the reservoirs.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3079 , 24kb)

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arXiv:0811.3115

Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 13:30:45 GMT (13kb)

Title: Coexistence of Non-Conventional Condensates in Two-Level Bose Atom

System

Authors: M.Corgini, C.Rojas-Molina, D.P.Sankovich

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 17 pages

Journal-ref: Int.J.Mod.Phys.B, vol.22, No7 (2008) 4799-4815

DOI: 10.1142/S0217979208048796

\\

In the framework of the Bogolyubov approximation and using the Bogolyubov

inequalities we give a simple proof of the coexistence of two non-conventional

Bose-Einstein condensates in the case of some superstable Bose system whose

atoms have an internal two-level structure and their energy operators in the

second quantized form depend on the number operators only.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3115 , 13kb)

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arXiv:0811.3120

Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 14:03:56 GMT (114kb)

Title: Statistical Mechanics of systems with long range interactions

Authors: David Mukamel

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: Published in AIP Conference Proceedings 970 "Dynamics and

Thermodynamics of Systems with Long-Range Interactions: Theory and

Experiments", Assisi, Italy 4-8 July 2007, editors A. Campa, A. Giansanti, G.

Morigi and F. Sylos Labini, p. 22 (2008)

\\

Recent theoretical studies of statistical mechanical properties of systems

with long range interactions are briefly reviewed. In these systems the

interaction potential decays with a rate slower than 1/r^d at large distances r

in d dimensions. As a result, these systems are non-additive and they display

unusual thermodynamic and dynamical properties which are not present in systems

with short range interactions. In particular, the various statistical

mechanical ensembles are not equivalent and the microcanonical specific heat

may be negative. Long range interactions may also result in breaking of

ergodicity, making the maximal entropy state inaccessible from some regions of

phase space. In addition, in many cases long range interactions result in slow

relaxation processes, with time scales which diverge in the thermodynamic

limit. Various models which have been found to exhibit these features are

discussed.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3120 , 114kb)

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arXiv:0811.3049

Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 17:35:48 GMT (835kb,D)

Title: Preparation of Decoherence Free Cluster States with Optical

Superlattices

Authors: Liang Jiang, Ana Maria Rey, Oriol Romero-Isart, Juan Jose

Garcia-Ripoll, Anna Sanpera, Mikhail D. Lukin

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 17 pages, 12 figures

\\

We present a protocol to prepare decoherence free cluster states using

ultracold atoms loaded in a two dimensional superlattice. The superlattice

geometry leads to an array of 2*2 plaquettes, each of them holding four

spin-1/2 particles that can be used for encoding a single logical qubit in the

two-fold singlet subspace, insensitive to uniform magnetic field fluctuations

in any direction. Dynamical manipulation of the supperlattice yields distinct

inter and intra plaquette interactions and permits to realize one qubit and two

qubit gates with high fidelity, leading to the generation of universal cluster

states for measurement based quantum computation. Our proposal based on inter

and intra plaquette interactions also opens the path to study polymerized

Hamiltonians which support ground states describing arbitrary quantum circuits.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3049 , 835kb)

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arXiv:0811.3157

Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 17:17:33 GMT (60kb)

Title: Spin mixing in colliding spinor condensates: formation of an effective

barrier

Authors: M. Guilleumas, B. Julia-Diaz, J. Mur-Petit, A. Polls

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: Accepted for publication at the Europhysics Letters

\\

The dynamics of F=1 spinor condensates initially prepared in a double-well

potential is studied in the mean field approach. It is shown that a small seed

of $m=0$ atoms on a system with initially well separated m=1 and m=-1

condensates has a dramatic effect on their mixing dynamics, acting as an

effective barrier for a remarkably long time. We show that this effect is due

to the spinor character of the system, and provides an observable example of

the interplay between the internal spin dynamics and the macroscopic evolution

of the magnetization in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3157 , 60kb)

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arXiv:0811.3296

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 09:47:56 GMT (552kb)

Title: Gauge-field rotation of 2D exciton Bose condensate in double quantum

well by radial magnetic field

Authors: E.B. Sonin

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

\\

Here it is shown that a radial magnetic field leads to rotation of a Bose

condensed exciton cloud due to Aharonov-Bohm effect for an electron and a hole

forming an exciton. As in the case of mechanical rotation of superfluids,

rotation is accompanied by penetration of vortices into the cloud at some

critical magnetic field. Penetration of vortices strongly affects the total

intensity and the angular distribution of photoluminescence from the exciton

cloud. This effect can be used for an effective experimental manifestation of

exciton Bose condensation.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3296 , 552kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3310

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 11:07:43 GMT (261kb)

Title: Role of the attractive intersite interaction in the extended Hubbard

model

Authors: F. Mancini, F. P. Mancini and A. Naddeo

Categories: cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 7 pages, 7 figures. EPJB Topical Issue on Novel Quantum Phases and

Mesoscopic Physics in Quantum Gases

DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2008-00399-x

\\

We consider the extended Hubbard model in the atomic limit on a Bethe lattice

with coordination number z. By using the equations of motion formalism, the

model is exactly solved for both attractive and repulsive intersite potential

V. By focusing on the case of negative V, i.e., attractive intersite

interaction, we study the phase diagram at finite temperature and find, for

various values of the filling and of the on-site coupling U, a phase transition

towards a state with phase separation. We determine the critical temperature as

a function of the relevant parameters, U/|V|, n and z and we find a reentrant

behavior in the plane (U/|V|,T). Finally, several thermodynamic properties are

investigated near criticality.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3310 , 261kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3316

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 19:36:29 GMT (88kb)

Title: Bloch oscillations in one-dimensional spinor gas

Authors: D.M. Gangardt, A. Kamenev

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures

\\

A force applied to a spin-flipped particle in a one-dimensional spinor gas

may lead to Bloch oscillations of particle's position and velocity. The

existence of Bloch oscillations crucially depends on the viscous friction force

exerted by the rest of the gas on the spin excitation. We evaluate the friction

in terms of the quantum fluid parameters. In particular, we show that the

friction is absent for integrable cases, such as SU(2) symmetric gas of bosons

or fermions. For small deviations from the exact integrability the friction is

very weak, opening the possibility to observe Bloch oscillations.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3316 , 88kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3351

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 15:12:51 GMT (22kb)

Title: Generalized grand-canonical ensemble theory for interacting

Bose-Einstein systems

Authors: Alexander Jurisch, Jan-Michael Rost

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 6 pages, two figures

\\

We use the maximum information principle to include particle-interaction into

the grand-canonical theory of BECs. The inclusion of the particle-interaction

elucidates why thermodynamic calculations for BECs by the grand-canonical

ensemble for the non-interacting case are in coincidence with up to date

experimental results. However, in our generalized theory we can show that a BEC

experiences a real and abrupt phase-transition in contrast to the smooth

phase-transition predicted by the non-interacting grand-canonical ensemble. In

addition, we discuss possible effects due to a thermal environment and the

experimental probing from a general point of view.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3351 , 22kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3352

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 15:13:14 GMT (13kb)

Title: Weizsacker energy of unitary Fermi gas in a harmonic trap

Authors: Alexander L. Zubarev

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 11 pages, 1 figure

\\

The universal method of construction of the rigorous lower bounds to the

Weizsacker energy is presented. We study a few-fermion systemat the unitarity.

Upper and lower bounds to the density functional theory(DFT) ground state

energy within the local density approximation (LDA) aregiven. Therigorous lower

bounds to the accuracy of the method are derived.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3352 , 13kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.2400 (*cross-listing*)

Date: Fri, 14 Nov 2008 18:20:29 GMT (308kb)

Title: Solitonic ground states in (color-) superconductivity

Authors: Dominik Nickel, Michael Buballa

Categories: hep-ph cond-mat.supr-con nucl-th

Comments: 24 pages, 18 figures

\\

We present a general framework for analyzing inhomogeneous (color-)

superconducting phases in mean-field approximation without restriction to the

Ginzburg-Landau approach. As a first application, we calculate real gap

functions with general one-dimensional periodic structures for a

3+1-dimensional toy model having two fermion species. The resulting solutions

are energetically favored against homogeneous superconducting (BCS) and normal

conducting phases in a window for the chemical potential difference which is

about twice as wide as for the most simple plane-wave ansatz ("Fulde-Ferrell

phase"). At the lower end of this window, we observe the formation of a soliton

lattice and a continuous phase transition to the BCS phase. At the higher end

of the window the gap functions are sinusoidal, and the transition to the

normal conducting phase is of first order. We also discuss the quasiparticle

excitation spectrum in the inhomogeneous phase. Finally, we compare the gap

functions with the known analytical solutions of the 1+1-dimensional theory.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2400 , 308kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.2803

Date: Tue, 18 Nov 2008 20:07:13 GMT (725kb)

Title: Entanglement detection

Authors: Otfried G\"uhne, Geza Toth

Categories: quant-ph cond-mat.other physics.optics

Comments: Review article, 86 pages, 22 figures. Comments are welcome!

\\

How can one prove that a given state is entangled? In this paper we review

different methods that have been proposed for entanglement detection. We first

explain the basic elements of entanglement theory for two or more particles and

then entanglement verification procedures such as Bell inequalities,

entanglement witnesses, the determination of nonlinear properties of a quantum

state via measurements on several copies, and spin squeezing inequalities. An

emphasis is given on the theory and application of entanglement witnesses. We

also discuss several experiments, where some of the presented methods have been

implemented.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.2803 , 725kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3290

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 09:29:25 GMT (67kb)

Title: Slowly decaying states of three particles with resonant interactions

Authors: F\'elix Werner (LKB - Lhomond)

Categories: quant-ph

\\

We determine analytically how Efimov trimer states are modified by three-body

losses within the model of Braaten and Hammer. We find a regime where the

energies approach the positive real axis and the decay rates vanish.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3290 , 67kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3409

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 20:39:04 GMT (1009kb)

Title: Coherent Patterning of Matter Waves with Subwavelength Localization

Authors: J. Mompart, V. Ahufinger, G. Birkl

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 5 pages, 5 figures

\\

We introduce the Subwavelength Localization via Adiabatic Passage (SLAP)

technique to coherently achieve state-selective patterning and addressing of

matter waves. The SLAP technique consists in coupling two partially overlapping

and spatially structured laser fields to three internal levels of the matter

wave yielding state-selective localization at those positions where the

adiabatic passage process does not occur. We show that by means of this

technique matter wave localization down to the single nanometer can be

achieved. We analyze in detail the potential implementation of the SLAP

technique for nano-lithography with an atomic beam of metastable Ne* and for

coherent patterning of a two-component 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3409 , 1009kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3340

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 14:08:25 GMT (464kb)

Title: Steering Bose-Einstein condensates despite time symmetry

Authors: Dario Poletti, Giuliano Benenti, Giulio Casati, Peter Hanggi, Baowen

Li

Categories: physics.atom-ph

Comments: 4 pages, 6 figures

\\

We study a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quasi-1D toroidal trap and

driven by a space-asymmetric potential, being both periodic and symmetric in

time. The system exhibits a directed current for an ensemble of initial

conditions which are symmetric in space and momentum. This phenomenon occurs

only if the interaction between atoms, treated in mean-field approximation,

exceeds a critical value. Our numerical findings can qualitatively be described

with a three-modes model (TMM). Our results corroborate well with a many-body

study, wherein this directed transport persists over an extended time scale

which increases with increasing atom number.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3340 , 464kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3394

Date: Thu, 20 Nov 2008 19:04:46 GMT (422kb)

Title: Atomic quasi-Bragg diffraction in a magnetic field

Authors: K.F.E.M. Domen, M.A.H.M. Jansen, W. van Dijk, and K.A.H. van Leeuwen

Categories: physics.atom-ph

Comments: 4 pages, 5 figures

\\

We report on a new technique to split an atomic beam coherently with an

easily adjustable splitting angle. In our experiment metastable helium atoms in

the |{1s2s}^3S_1 M=1> state diffract from a polarization gradient light field

formed by counterpropagating \sigma^+ and \sigma^- polarized laser beams in the

presence of a homogeneous magnetic field. In the near-adiabatic regime, energy

conservation allows the resonant exchange between magnetic energy and kinetic

energy. As a consequence, symmetric diffraction of |M=0> or |M=-1> atoms in a

single order is achieved, where the order can be chosen freely by tuning the

magnetic field. We present experimental results up to 6th order diffraction (24

\hbar k momentum splitting, i.e., 2.21 m/s in transverse velocity) and present

a simple theoretical model that stresses the similarity with conventional Bragg

scattering. The resulting device constitutes a flexible, adjustable,

large-angle, three-way coherent atomic beam splitter with many potential

applications in atom optics and atom interferometry.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3394 , 422kb)

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\\

arXiv:0811.3130

Date: Wed, 19 Nov 2008 14:34:09 GMT (234kb)

Title: Dynamical Theory of Price and Money in Volatile Markets. A Physicist's

Reaction to Economics

Authors: Karl Svozil

Categories: physics.soc-ph

Comments: 26 p

\\

The creation and annihilation of money and its economic effects are reviewed.

Economic values appear "in the mind" of the market participants; e.g., by

pretending, maintaining and achieving a particular price for a certain asset.

Upon its creation by banks, this kind of "value phantasy" is converted into

"real money" often in terms of buyer's debt accompanied by a simultaneous

payment of fiat money to the seller. This money is then multiplied on the money

market and is competing against other money supplies for the traded assets,

goods and services, where it may cause dilution, inflation and reallocation of

resources.

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.3130 , 234kb)

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The replacements:

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\\

arXiv:0801.1732

replaced with revised version Fri, 14 Nov 2008 09:53:23 GMT (110kb)

Title: Three-Body Recombination of Identical Bosons with a Large Positive

Scattering Length at Nonzero Temperature

Authors: Eric Braaten, H.-W. Hammer, Daekyoung Kang, Lucas Platter

Categories: cond-mat.other hep-ph nucl-th

Comments: 34 pages, 10 figures, published version

Report-no: HISKP-TH-08-01

Journal-ref: Phys.Rev. A 78 (2008) 043605

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.1732 , 110kb)

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\\

arXiv:0809.0449

replaced with revised version Thu, 13 Nov 2008 21:41:21 GMT (185kb)

Title: Point processes in arbitrary dimension from fermionic gases, random

matrix theory, and number theory

Authors: Salvatore Torquato, A. Scardicchio and Chase E Zachary

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech math-ph math.MP

Comments: 40 pages, 11 figures, 1 table, iopart; corrected mislabeled section

numbers and minor typographical issues; minor text changes

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.0449 , 185kb)

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\\

arXiv:0801.3860

replaced with revised version Fri, 14 Nov 2008 04:21:49 GMT (310kb,D)

Title: Multi-Modal Properties and Dynamics of the Gradient Echo Quantum Memory

Authors: G. H\'etet, J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, P. K. Lam, and B. C.

Buchler

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 4 pages 3 figures

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203601 (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.203601

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.3860 , 310kb)

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\\

arXiv:0803.2156

replaced with revised version Mon, 17 Nov 2008 16:30:21 GMT (328kb)

Title: Interaction induced trapping and pulsed emission of a magnetically

insensitive Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Stephan Middelkamp, Igor Lesanovsky, Peter Schmelcher

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures

Journal-ref: EPL, 84 (2008) 40011

DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/84/40011

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.2156 , 328kb)

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\\

arXiv:0804.2678 (*cross-listing*)

replaced with revised version Mon, 17 Nov 2008 15:42:52 GMT (94kb)

Title: Density Functional Theory for non-relativistic Fermions in the Unitarity

Limit

Authors: Gautam Rupak and Thomas Schaefer (North Carolina State University)

Categories: nucl-th cond-mat.other

Comments: 17 pages, final version, Nuclear Physics A, in press

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.2678 , 94kb)

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\\

arXiv:0806.0587

replaced with revised version Mon, 17 Nov 2008 14:09:36 GMT (246kb)

Title: Collisional stability of a three-component degenerate Fermi gas

Authors: T. B. Ottenstein, T. Lompe, M. Kohnen, A. N. Wenz and S. Jochim

Categories: cond-mat.other

Journal-ref: PRL 101, 203202 (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.203202

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.0587 , 246kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.2923

replaced with revised version Sun, 16 Nov 2008 20:21:35 GMT (167kb)

Title: Polarized superfluidity in the attractive Hubbard model with population

imbalance

Authors: Tung-Lam Dao, Michel Ferrero, Antoine Georges, Massimo Capone, Olivier

Parcollet

Categories: cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.str-el

Comments: 4+ pages, 4 figures, new version

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2923 , 167kb)

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\\

arXiv:0807.3366

replaced with revised version Mon, 17 Nov 2008 18:16:45 GMT (28kb)

Title: Motion of an impurity particle in an ultracold quasi-one-dimensional gas

of hard-core bosons

Authors: M.D. Girardeau and A. Minguzzi

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 4 pp., 2 figures, revtex4; error in Eq.(6) corrected and derivation

simplified

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3366 , 28kb)

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\\

arXiv:0808.4137

replaced with revised version Mon, 17 Nov 2008 04:12:21 GMT (49kb)

Title: Effect of Induced Spin-Orbit Coupling for Atoms via Laser Fields

Authors: Xiong-Jun Liu, Mario F. Borunda, Xin Liu and Jairo Sinova

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph

Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.4137 , 49kb)

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\\

arXiv:0810.3797

replaced with revised version Mon, 17 Nov 2008 12:12:25 GMT (27kb)

Title: Effective theory for the Goldstone field in the BCS-BEC crossover at T=0

Authors: Juan L. Ma\~nes and Manuel A. Valle

Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.supr-con hep-th nucl-th

Comments: 27 pages. 4 references added, typos corrected, expanded Section III B

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3797 , 27kb)

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\\

arXiv:0810.3833

replaced with revised version Sat, 15 Nov 2008 12:52:36 GMT (988kb)

Title: Unusual states of vortex matter in mixtures of Bose--Einstein

Condensates on rotating optical lattices

Authors: E. K. Dahl, E. Babaev, and A. Sudbo

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech

Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures. To be published in Physical Review Letters

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.3833 , 988kb)

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\\

arXiv:0809.4848

replaced with revised version Mon, 17 Nov 2008 17:02:30 GMT (175kb)

Title: Feshbach projection-operator formalism to resonance scattering on

Bargmann-type potentials

Authors: Varvara V. Shamshutdinova, Konstantin N. Pichugin, Ingrid Rotter, and

Boris F. Samsonov

Categories: quant-ph

Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.4848 , 175kb)

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\\

arXiv:0707.0695

replaced with revised version Tue, 18 Nov 2008 18:51:05 GMT (51kb)

Title: Phase Transitions of S=1 Spinor Condensates in an Optical Lattice

Authors: Daniel Podolsky, Shailesh Chandrasekharan, and Ashvin Vishwanath

Categories: cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.str-el hep-lat

Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures; v2 - Improved presentation

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.0695 , 51kb)

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\\

arXiv:0804.4461

replaced with revised version Tue, 18 Nov 2008 16:42:27 GMT (31kb)

Title: Theory of quasi-one dimensional imbalanced Fermi gases

Authors: Erhai Zhao and W. Vincent Liu

Categories: cond-mat.other cond-mat.supr-con

Comments: new expanded version, 8 pages, updated references

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.4461 , 31kb)

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\\

arXiv:0805.1817

replaced with revised version Tue, 18 Nov 2008 15:42:20 GMT (191kb)

Title: Atom Chip Diffraction of Bose-Einstein Condensates: The Role of

Inter-Atomic Interactions

Authors: T. E. Judd, R. G. Scott, T. M. Fromhold

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 053623 (2008)

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1817 , 191kb)

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\\

arXiv:0806.4713

replaced with revised version Wed, 19 Nov 2008 14:58:59 GMT (37kb)

Title: Equation of state and effective mass of the unitary Fermi gas in a 1D

periodic potential

Authors: Gentaro Watanabe, Giuliano Orso, Franco Dalfovo, Lev P. Pitaevskii,

Sandro Stringari

Categories: cond-mat.supr-con nucl-th

Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, to appear in Phys. Rev. A

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.4713 , 37kb)

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\\

arXiv:0808.0659

replaced with revised version Tue, 18 Nov 2008 23:02:05 GMT (43kb)

Title: Enhancement of On-Site Interactions of Tunnelling Ultracold Atoms in

Optical Potentials using Radio-Frequency Dressing

Authors: Martin Shotter, Dimitrios Trypogeorgos and Christopher Foot

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures, 6 subfigures

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. A 78, 051602(R) (2008)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.051602

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.0659 , 43kb)

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\\

arXiv:0810.0400 (*cross-listing*)

replaced with revised version Wed, 19 Nov 2008 08:32:05 GMT (96kb)

Title: Strongly interacting Fermi systems in 1/N expansion: From cold atoms to

color superconductivity

Authors: Hiroaki Abuki and Tomas Brauner

Categories: hep-ph cond-mat.supr-con nucl-th

Comments: 13 pages, REVTeX4, 11 eps figures; v2: reference added, version to

appear in Phys. Rev. D

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.0400 , 96kb)

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\\

arXiv:0810.0210

replaced with revised version Thu, 20 Nov 2008 16:33:09 GMT (1352kb,D)

Title: Finite Temperature Models of Bose-Einstein Condensation

Authors: Nick P. Proukakis and Brian Jackson

Categories: cond-mat.other

Comments: Detailed Review Article on finite temperature theoretical techniques

for studying weakly-interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensates written at

an elementary level suitable for non-experts in this area (e.g. starting PhD

students). Now includes table of contents

Journal-ref: J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 203002 (2008)

\\ ( http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.0210 , 1352kb)

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Till next time,

Matt.

-- ========================================================================= Dr M. J. Davis, Senior Lecturer in Physics School of Physical Sciences, email: mdavis_at_physics.uq.edu.au University of Queensland, ph : +61 7 334 69824 Brisbane, QLD 4072, fax : +61 7 336 51242 Australia. http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/ ========================================================================= Matt's arXiv selection: weekly summary of cold-atom papers from arXiv.org http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/mdavis/matts_arXiv/ ========================================================================= Legal stuff: Unless stated otherwise, this e-mail represents only the views of the sender and not the views of the University of Queensland =========================================================================Received on Thu Dec 04 2008 - 10:35:40 EST

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